Diabetes & Endocrinology

Some Books available in the library

  • ABC of diabetes
  • Best of five MCQS for the endocrinology and diabetes SCE
  •  Care of people with diabetes: a manual for nursing practice
  •  Diabetes and its management
  •  Endocrine surgery: a companion to specialist surgical practice
  •  Essential endocrinology and diabetes
  •  Lecture notes on endocrinology and diabetes
  • Mosby’s color atlas and text of diabetes and endocrinology
  • Oxford handbook of endocrinology and diabetes
  • Specialist training in endocrinology

Search the Library Catalogue for more Diabetes books

Big4 Medical Journals

DynaMed Plus Diabetes & Endocrinology Topics  (If you are not using Trust computer login with your OpenAthens)

Clinical Knowledge Summaries – Endocrine and Metabolic Topics

Recent articles from selected Journal RSS feeds 

BMC Endocrine Disorders (Open Access)

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Cardiovascular Diabetology (Open Access)

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Clinical Diabetes (Full-text available via NHS Athens)

Diabetes (Full-text available via NHS Athens)

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Diabetes and Primary Care  (Full-text not available)

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Diabetic Medicine (Full-text not available)

Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders (Open Access)

Abstract

Purpose

Diabetes is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among women in India. The burden of diabetes among women was found to increase with age and exposure to the post-partum period. The present study examines the spatial variation in the prevalence of diabetes among women in the late reproductive age-group of 35–49 years across 640 districts in India.

Methods

The study utilized data from the recent round of the National Family Health Survey, 2015–16. Age-standardized prevalence rates were calculated, followed by an examination of economic inequality using the poor-rich-ratio (PRR) and Wagstaff’s concentration index. Spatial variation in the prevalence of diabetes was explored with a series of quantile maps, univariate, and bivariate LISA cluster maps. Further, to explore the district-level diabetes prevalence among women in the country, Ordinary Least Square and Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) models were used.

Results

The study findings affirm the presence of spatial clustering in the burden of diabetes among women. The burden is relatively higher among women from the Southern and Eastern parts of the country. Findings establish obesity, hypertension, and living in urban areas as major correlates of diabetes.

Conclusion

Program with an aim to lower the intensity of community-based prevalence of diabetes, especially among women in their late reproductive ages, should adopt differential approaches across different states/districts in the context of their lifestyle, dietary pattern, working pattern, and other socio-cultural practices.

Abstract

Objectives

The proposed review aims to compare the efficacy and safety profile of empagliflozin 25 mg with its lower dosages and placebo, respectively, in insulin-treated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients.

Methods

Double-blinded randomized controlled trials comparing the above outcomes will be searched primarily in three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Scopus) and eligible trials will be included in the proposed review. Then, from the trials recruited in the review, data of the study design, participants, interventions compared, and outcomes of interest will be extracted. Subsequently, the trials’ risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. The meta-analysis will be conducted with a fixed-effect or a random-effect model to estimate the mean differences (weighted or standardized) and risk ratios for the efficacy and safety-related comparable outcome data, respectively. Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed by the p-value of chi-squared statistics and I2 statistics and explained by subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Publication bias will be assessed by funnel plots and Egger’s test. The sensitivity analysis will repeat the meta-analysis for respective outcomes using assumptions alternative to that used in the preliminary meta-analysis and by dropping each study at a time.

Results

A narrative reporting will ensue if a meta-analytic comparison is not possible.

Conclusions

Based on the contemporary literature, the proposed review will synthesize the evidence on how the efficacy and safety profile of high dose empagliflozin varies with its lower doses and placebo, respectively, in insulin-treated T1DM patients.

Abstract

Purpose

Diabetes mellitus is associated with perturbations in brain biochemical parameters associated with dementia. This study aimed at comparing the effect of metformin and metformin/donepezil combination on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the brain of diabetic Wistar rats.

Methods

Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin after administration of 10% fructose for 14 days. Animals were randomly assigned to four groups of five animals each. Group 1 was the normal control and received only distilled water. Groups 2 and 3 were diabetic rats treated with metformin/donepezil combination and metformin only respectively, while group 4 was diabetic control. Treatment lasted for 21 days after confirmation of diabetes. Activities of acetylcholinesterase (AchE), butyrylcholinesterase (BchE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were evaluated in the brain of diabetic rats. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to estimate brain levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) malondialdehyde and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), while expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers – glucose regulated protein-78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was determined using real-time PCR in the hippocampus of diabetic rats.

Results

Treatment with metformin/donepezil combination significantly reduced the activities of AchE, BchE as well as levels of malondialdehyde, TNF-α and IL-6, while the activities of SOD, GPx and catalase were significantly increased in the brain. Moreover, expression of ER stress markers was attenuated in the hippocampus.

Conclusion

Metformin/donepezil combination appeared more efficacious than metformin only and could be considered for managing diabetes-associated dementia.

Abstract

Purpose

Smoking has been linked with osteoporosis, but further evidence is required, especially concerning the effects of different types of tobacco smoking. We sought to examine the association between smoking and bone health in a large cohort of elderly Iranians.

Methods

The data from 2377 participants aged >60 years of Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) program were used. Regardless of the type of smoking, participants were initially classified as non-smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers. Current smokers were also categorized based on the smoking type (pure cigarette, pure hookah and both). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone density as well as Trabecular Bone Score (TBS). T-score ≤ −2.5 in either of the femoral neck, total hip or spinal sites was applied to determine the osteoporosis. The association of smoking and osteoporosis was assessed using multivariable modified Poisson regression model and reported as adjusted prevalence ratios (APR). The linear regression model was used to assess the association between smoking and TBS, adjusting for potential factors.

Results

A total of 2377 (1225 women) were enrolled [mean age: 69.3 (±6.4) years], among which 1054 (44.3%) participants were nonsmokers. In all, 496 (20.9%) participants were current smokers. Multivariable regression analysis revealed no significant association between smoking (either current or past) and osteoporosis in women. In men, current smoking was negatively associated with osteoporosis (APR: 1.51, 95%CI: 1.16–1.96). Among current users, cigarette smoking was associated with osteoporosis (APR: 1.57, 95%CI: 1.20–2.03); however, we could not detect a significant association between current smoking of hookah and osteoporosis. In men, a significant association was also detected between current cigarette smoking and TBS (coefficient: -0.03, 95%CI: −0.01, −0.04).

Conclusion

Current cigarette smoking is associated with both the quantity and quality of bone mass in elderly men. Although we could not detect a significant association between hookah and osteoporosis in men, considering the prevalence of hookah smoking in the middle eastern countries, further studies are needed to determine the effect of hookah smoking on bone health.

Abstract

Purpose

Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity in adolescents. Excess serum uric acid (SUA) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) among adults. We evaluated the relationship among SUA and markers of insulin resistance (IR) and low-grade inflammation in obese adolescents with and without MS.

Methods

The study was a retrospective chart review of obese patients seen in the LeBonheur Endocrine clinic seen in clinic between September 2016 and December 2017. MS was defined as according to the International Diabetes Federation. Body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body composition, fasting lipids, glucose, high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum uric acid (SUA), HbA1c, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), insulin and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were extracted from the charts of the 100 obese adolescents (57% female).

Results

Hyperuricemia (SUA >357 umol/L) was present in 41.8% of entire cohort without significant ethnic/racial and/or gender differences. Adolescents with HUA had higher FM, SBP, HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05). While SUA was positively correlated with FM, SBP, HOMA-IR and HbA1c, and triglyceride:HDL-C ratio (TG:HDL-C) (p < 0.05). MS was identified in 32.8% of cohort. MS showed significantly higher FM, SBP, DBP, SUA, ALT, insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG:HDL-c ratio than non-MS subgroup (p < 0.05). FM was positively correlated with SUA, HOMA-IR and hsCRP (p < 0.01).

Conclusions

In our study, those with hyperuricemia (HUA) showed elevated markers of metabolic syndrome including BP, serum glucoses, IR and triglycerides. In our cohort, SUA appears to correlate with MS comorbidities.

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the present controversies on the association between green coffee supplementation and cardio metabolic risk factors, this systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of green coffee supplementation on cardio metabolic risk factors.

Method

A systematic literature search was performed throughout the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases up to October 2019. As a result, all randomized controlled trials over the effect of green coffee supplementation on fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), C - reactive protein (CRP), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adults were examined. Data were extracted from the relevant studies and analyzed using the random-effect or pooled model and standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results

After excluding the irrelevant articles, 27 studies were included in the final analysis. Pooled results revealed that green coffee supplementation significantly reduced FBS (WMD = −2.28, 95% CI: −4.49 to −0.07, P = 0.043), insulin (WMD = −0.53, 95% CI: −0.93 to −0.14, P = 0.008), and triglyceride (WMD = −9.28, 95% CI: −14.93 to - 3.63, P = 0.001). Furthermore, green coffee supplementation increased the HDL levels (WMD = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.08 to 2.58, P = 0.037). However, the changes in HOMA-IR, LDL, and CRP levels were not significant (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

This meta-analysis indicated that green coffee supplementation significantly decreased FBS, insulin, and triglyceride, but improved HDL. No statistically significant improvement was found in HOMA-IR, LDL, and CRP indices following the green coffee supplementation.

The author names are incorrectly displayed in the original article and should be Faith Pwaniyibo Samson (F.P. Samson), Ambrose Teru Patrick (A.T. Patrick), Margret Samuel Nadro (M.S. Nadro), and Jin Jahng Wan (J.J. Wan).

Abstract

Introduction

Providing health care to patients at home could be causing the mortality and readmission rates reduction in addition to satisfaction of both patients and health care providers increase. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of home care service compared to hospital based care in patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

Methods

An economic evaluation study and a trial study were simultaneously conducted in Iran. In trial phase, patients with diabetic foot ulcer were randomly assigned to the home care or hospital care. The Cost and Quality of life data were determined as measures of the study. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for comparative purposes. The model consisted of five stages of the disease. The Tree Age Pro 2009 and R software’s were used for data analysis.

Results

120 patients were enrolled in our trial; among which 30 patients were in home care service group and 90 patients in hospital based care group. The rate of ulcer size reduction in hospital based care was significant (P value = 0.003) in comparison with home care service. The total cost of the home care and hospital strategies were 1720.4 US$, 3940.3 US$ and the total effectiveness were 0.31 and 0.29, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was 117,300 US$ per quality-adjusted life year for home care intervention compared to hospital based care. Based on ICER plane home care treatment will be placed on the southeastern quadrant of the Cost-Effectiveness Plane, and is suggested as a more dominant treatment alternative.

Conclusions

Regarding current evidence, home care strategy for patients suffering diabetic foot ulcer enjoys more cost effectiveness compared to hospital care. It is suggested that healthcare policy makers determine the tariff for health care services for disease groups according to the activity based costing approach.

Abstract

Purpose

We aimed to observe clinical and laboratory indices of the diabetic subjects who were either frail or not according to Edmonton frail score. We also aimed to study whether Edmonton frail score was correlated with metabolic and other parameters of the diabetic subjects.

Methods

Patients with T2DM visited our clinic were enrolled to the study and grouped as either frail or not frail according to the Edmonton score. Clinical and laboratory parameters of the groups were compared.

Results

Serum triglyceride (p = 0.04), serum albumin (p = 0.006) and Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) (p = 0.01) were significantly lower, while fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.005) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (p = 0.04) were significantly higher in frail group compared to the not frail patients. Edmonton frail score was positively correlated with HbA1c, age, duration of T2DM, FBG, and negatively correlated with serum albumin and GFR levels.

Conclusions

We think that frailty is associated with poor glucose control in subjects with T2DM and better control of the disease may prevent or slow down the development of frailty, as well as microvascular complications in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Journal of  Diabetes Nursing (Full-text not available)

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Reproductive Biology & Endocrinology (Open Access)

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