Respiratory Tract Infections Pubmed Results

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[Analysis of related factors of secondary pulmonary infection in children with tracheobronchial foreign body].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2019 Dec;33(12):1200-1202

Authors: Wen X, Shi J, Cui L, Wang YF, Huang AP, Liu YY, Song YL

Abstract
Objective:To analyze the secondary pulmonary infection and the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in children with tracheobronchial foreign body, and to guide the clinical treatment. Method:The clinical data of 197 children with tracheobronchial foreign bodies confirmed by rigid bronchoscopy were reviewed. According to the clinical manifestations and signs, blood routine, chest CT and airway endocrine pathogen distribution, the secondary pulmonary infection was analyzed. Result:Seventy-five of 197 children with foreign bodies in tracheobronchial had secondary pulmonary infections. Among them, 32 cases of airway endocrine cultured pathogenic bacteria, mainly including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Children with long preoperative history, fever, and with a history of using antibiotics are more likely to have secondary pulmonary infections. Conclusion:The duration of disease history, preoperative fever and the use of antibiotics are related to secondary pulmonary infection. The third generation of cephalosporins can effectively control the infection.

PMID: 31914274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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[FREQUENCY OF POLYMORPHIC VARIANTS OF GSTT1 AND GSTM1 GENES IN PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN GEORGIAN POPULATION].

Georgian Med News. 2019 Nov;(296):111-116

Authors: Jokhadze T, Buadze T, Gaiozishvili M, Kiria N, Khujadze I, Lezhava T

Abstract
A study was made for determining the frequencies of polymorphic variants of GST genes - GSTM1 and GSTT1, both among healthy individuals of the Georgian population (the Tbilisi population, populations of Eastern and Western Georgia), and among patients with tuberculosis; was also conducted a study on the relationship of certain genotypes with hepatotoxicity in patients taking anti Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PT) treatment. As a result of the analysis, it turned out that the general population indicator for healthy individuals for GSTT1 and GSTM1 positive variants of GST genes was 82%; for GSTT1 (-) / GSTM1 (+) variant was 13%; The GSTT1 (+) / GSTM1 (-) genotype was observed in 2%; as for the double null genotype - GSTT1 (-) / GSTM1 (-), the total population indicator was 3%. As for individuals suffering pulmonary tuberculosis, it turned out that 79% of studied patients revealed positive genotypes by the studied genes - GSTT1 (+)/GSTM1 (+); 3% have the GSTT1(-)/GSTM1(+) genotype; the genotype GSTT1(+)/GSTM1(-) was observed in 6% of investigated individuals, and the double null genotype - GSTT1 (-) / GSTM1 (-) - in 12%, which significantly exceeds the general population indicator for healthy individuals. The results of the studies also showed that there is a relationship between the double null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and drug induced liver injury in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, in Georgian population. It has been suggested that it is possible to recommend a preliminary analysis of the polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, before starting antituberculotic treatment, for preventive measures in the case of detection of double null genotypes. It should be noted, that this study has been conducted in Georgia first time.

PMID: 31889716 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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[INFORMATIVITY OF COMPUTER DENSITOMETRY FOR ASSESSING THE DEGREE OF ACTIVITY OF THE INFLAMMATORY PROCESS IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOMAS].

Georgian Med News. 2019 Nov;(296):81-86

Authors: Lynnyk M, Gumeniuk М, Kalabukha I, Liskina I, Gumeniuk G, Maietnyi E

Abstract
In order to establish the levels of densitometric indicators of CT of the chest for various degrees of activity of a specific inflammatory process, the histopathological findings of the resected material were analyzed in 65 patients aged 24 to 60 years, 39 of them men, 25 women operated on pulmonary tuberculosis with a measurement of their densitometric indicators on CT of the chest. It is proved that computer densitometry is an objective non-invasive research method that allows you to establish with high confidence the degree of activity of a specific inflammatory process. The study of the average, minimum and maximum values of the density indicator on a fixed area of the axial section of the CT scan actually reflects the histological structure of the focus and allows you to identify areas with high activity of a specific inflammatory process.

PMID: 31889710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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The complex associations of climate variability with seasonal influenza A and B virus transmission in subtropical Shanghai, China.

Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jan 20;701:134607

Authors: Zhang Y, Ye C, Yu J, Zhu W, Wang Y, Li Z, Xu Z, Cheng J, Wang N, Hao L, Hu W

Abstract
Most previous studies focused on the association between climate variables and seasonal influenza activity in tropical or temperate zones, little is known about the associations in different influenza types in subtropical China. The study aimed to explore the associations of multiple climate variables with influenza A (Flu-A) and B virus (Flu-B) transmissions in Shanghai, China. Weekly influenza virus and climate data (mean temperature (MeanT), diurnal temperature range (DTR), relative humidity (RH) and wind velocity (Wv)) were collected between June 2012 and December 2018. Generalized linear models (GLMs), distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and regression tree models were developed to assess such associations. MeanT exerted the peaking risk of Flu-A at 1.4 °C (2-weeks' cumulative relative risk (RR): 14.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.67-23.31) and 25.8 °C (RR: 12.21, 95%CI: 6.64-19.83), Flu-B had the peak at 1.4 °C (RR: 26.44, 95%CI: 11.52-51.86). The highest RR of Flu-A was 23.05 (95%CI: 5.12-88.45) at DTR of 15.8 °C, that of Flu-B was 38.25 (95%CI: 15.82-87.61) at 3.2 °C. RH of 51.5% had the highest RR of Flu-A (9.98, 95%CI: 4.03-26.28) and Flu-B (4.63, 95%CI: 1.95-11.27). Wv of 3.5 m/s exerted the peaking RR of Flu-A (7.48, 95%CI: 2.73-30.04) and Flu-B (7.87, 95%CI: 5.53-11.91). DTR ≥ 12 °C and MeanT <22 °C were the key drivers for Flu-A and Flu-B, separately. The study found complex non-linear relationships between climate variability and different influenza types in Shanghai. We suggest the careful use of meteorological variables in influenza prediction in subtropical regions, considering such complex associations, which may facilitate government and health authorities to better minimize the impacts of seasonal influenza.

PMID: 31710904 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Comparison of intubation and tracheotomy in adult patients with acute epiglottitis or supraglottitis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Nov;276(11):3173-3177

Authors: Tapiovaara LK, Aro KLS, Bäck LJJ, Koskinen AIM

Abstract
PURPOSE: In acute epiglottitis (AE) or acute supraglottitis (AS), the management of the airway is crucial. We hypothesized that tracheotomized patients recover faster than intubated patients do.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult AE and AS patients, who underwent intubation or tracheotomy between 2007 and 2018 in a tertiary care center. Patient demographics, treatment, and complications were analyzed.
RESULTS: The cohort comprised 42 patients. The airway was secured with intubation in 50% and with tracheotomy in 50%. All intubated patients (n = 21) and three tracheotomized patients were treated in the intensive care unit (p < 0.0001). Procedure-related complications were encountered in three intubated and eight tracheotomized patients (p = 0.892). Median overall treatment cost was 11.547 € and 5.856 € in the intubated and tracheotomized patient groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The median duration of sick leave after discharge from hospital was 13 days in the tracheotomy group and 7 days in the intubation group (p = 0.097).
CONCLUSION: Tracheotomy resulted in a less expensive management in securing the airway in AE or AS, but tracheotomized patients had a trend towards more complications and longer sick leaves compared to intubated patients.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b.

PMID: 31489494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Using big data to predict pertussis infections in Jinan city, China: a time series analysis.

Int J Biometeorol. 2020 Jan;64(1):95-104

Authors: Zhang Y, Bambrick H, Mengersen K, Tong S, Feng L, Zhang L, Liu G, Xu A, Hu W

Abstract
This study aims to use big data (climate data, internet query data and school calendar patterns (SCP)) to improve pertussis surveillance and prediction, and develop an early warning model for pertussis epidemics. We collected weekly pertussis notifications, SCP, climate and internet search query data (Baidu index (BI)) in Jinan, China between 2013 and 2017. Time series decomposition and temporal risk assessment were used for examining the epidemic features in pertussis infections. A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and regression tree model were developed to predict pertussis occurrence using identified predictors. Our study demonstrates clear seasonal patterns in pertussis epidemics, and pertussis activity was most significantly associated with BI at 2-week lag (rBI = 0.73, p < 0.05), temperature at 1-week lag (rtemp = 0.19, p < 0.05) and rainfall at 2-week lag (rrainfall = 0.27, p < 0.05). No obvious relationship between pertussis peaks and school attendance was found in the study. Pertussis cases were more likely to be temporally concentrated throughout the epidemics during the study period. SARIMA models with 2-week-lagged BI and 1-week-lagged temperature had better predictive performance (βsearch query = 0.06, p = 0.02; βtemp = 0.16, p = 0.03) with large correlation coefficients (r = 0.67, p < 0.01) and low root mean squared error (RMSE) value (r = 3.59). The regression tree model identified threshold values of potential predictors (search query, climate and SCP) for pertussis epidemics. Our results showed that internet query in conjunction with social and climatic data can predict pertussis epidemics, which is a foundation of using such data to develop early warning systems.

PMID: 31478106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Xylitol treats nasal mucosa in rhinitis medicamentosa: an experimental rat model study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Nov;276(11):3123-3130

Authors: Cam B, Sari M, Midi A, Gergin O

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Rhinitis medicamentosa is drug-induced rhinitis which occurs by prolonged and overdose usage of topical nasal decongestants. There is not much of treatment choice rather than nasal steroids. In this pathological study, we have been aimed to represent the healing effects of xylitol on damaged nasal mucosa due to rhinitis medicamentosa.
METHOD: 30 Wistar rats were separated into 5 groups. During 2 months, oxymetazoline was given to the first group, and saline was given to second group intranasally. First and second group animals were examined at the end of 2 months and rhinitis medicamentosa was detected. Oxymetazoline was given to the third, fourth, and fifth groups during 2 months. Then xylitol solution, mometasone, and saline were applied, respectively, for 15 days. After the experiment, rats' nasal mucosas were evaluated histopathologically.
RESULTS: Xylitol and mometasone were found to be more effective than the control group in terms of histopathological changes. Effectivity of xylitol and mometasone was compared and not a significant value was determined.
CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, xylitol solution is effective as mometasone, usable and well-priced in the treatment of rhinitis medicamentosa. More comprehensive and ultrastructural studies on animals and human studies with rhinometric evaluation should be performed.

PMID: 31468129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Increased risk of psoriasis in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps: a longitudinal follow-up study using Korean national sample cohort.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Nov;276(11):3105-3111

Authors: Choi HG, Lee HJ

Abstract
PURPOSE: Focal chronic inflammation or infection is thought to be one of the causes of psoriasis. Few reports on the association between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and psoriasis exist, thus it is poorly defined. This study seeks to investigate the incidence of psoriasis in patients with CRS with reference to a matched control group.
METHODS: This national cohort study relies on data from Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Sample Cohort (HIRA-NSC), which were entered from 2002 to 2013. A total of 34,219 patients with CRS without nasal polyps was matched with 136,976 controls. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the crude (simple) and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of psoriasis. For subgroup analysis, participants were grouped by age and sex.
RESULTS: The risk of psoriasis was higher in the CRS group than in the control group (adjusted HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.12-1.47, P < 0.001). Children, adolescents below 19 years regardless of sex, and old adult men above 60 years are at significantly higher risk for subsequent psoriasis after CRS diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: CRS may increase the risk of psoriasis.

PMID: 31352504 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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