Obstructive Lung Disease Results from Pubmed

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Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome presenting as mechanical ileus after short-course oral steroids for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation.

Parasitol Int. 2020 Feb 19;:102087

Authors: Rothe K, Katchanov J, Schneider J, Spinner CD, Phillip V, Busch DH, Tappe D, Braren R, Schmid RM, Slotta-Huspenina J

We report a case of a fatal Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome (SHS) in a migrant from Kenya, who had been living in Germany for three decades. A short-course oral steroid treatment for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD) exacerbation had been administered four weeks prior to the presentation. The initial clinical and radiological findings suggested a mechanical small bowel obstruction as a cause of ileus. Our case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for strongyloidiasis in patients from endemic areas even years after they left the country of origin. It demonstrates that even a five-day course of prednisolone is able to trigger SHS in patients with underlying strongyloidiasis. History of frequent previous administration of oral prednisolone for COPD exacerbations in our case raises the question why and how the last steroid regimen provoked SHS. SHS can present with multiple gastrointestinal symptoms including ileus and the absence of eosinophilia during the whole course of the disease should not lower the level of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting.

PMID: 32087332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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A Machine-learning Approach to Forecast Aggravation Risk in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Clinical Indicators.

Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 20;10(1):3118

Authors: Peng J, Chen C, Zhou M, Xie X, Zhou Y, Luo CH

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) repeat acute exacerbations (AE). Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) is only available for patients in stable phase. Currently, there is a lack of assessment and prediction methods for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients during hospitalization. To enhance the monitoring and treatment of AECOPD patients, we develop a novel C5.0 decision tree classifier to predict the prognosis of AECOPD hospitalized patients with objective clinical indicators. The medical records of 410 hospitalized AECOPD patients are collected and 28 features including vital signs, medical history, comorbidities and various inflammatory indicators are selected. The overall accuracy of the proposed C5.0 decision tree classifier is 80.3% (65 out of 81 participants) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI):(0.6991, 0.8827) and Kappa 0.6054. In addition, the performance of the model constructed by C5.0 exceeds the C4.5, classification and regression tree (CART) model and the iterative dichotomiser 3 (ID3) model. The C5.0 decision tree classifier helps respiratory physicians to assess the severity of the patient early, thereby guiding the treatment strategy and improving the prognosis of patients.

PMID: 32080330 [PubMed - in process]

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Postinfectious Bronchiolitis Obliterans in Children: Diagnostic Workup and Therapeutic Options: A Workshop Report.

Can Respir J. 2020;2020:5852827

Authors: Jerkic SP, Brinkmann F, Calder A, Casey A, Dishop M, Griese M, Kurland G, Niemitz M, Nyilas S, Schramm D, Schubert R, Tamm M, Zielen S, Rosewich M

Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a rare, chronic form of obstructive lung disease, often initiated with injury of the bronchiolar epithelium followed by an inflammatory response and progressive fibrosis of small airways resulting in nonuniform luminal obliteration or narrowing. The term BO comprises a group of diseases with different underlying etiologies, courses, and characteristics. Among the better recognized inciting stimuli leading to BO are airway pathogens such as adenovirus and mycoplasma, which, in a small percentage of infected children, will result in progressive fixed airflow obstruction, an entity referred to as postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO). The present knowledge on BO in general is reasonably well developed, in part because of the relatively high incidence in patients who have undergone lung transplantation or bone marrow transplant recipients who have had graft-versus-host disease in the posttransplant period. The cellular and molecular pathways involved in PIBO, while assumed to be similar, have not been adequately elucidated. Since 2016, an international consortium of experts with an interest in PIBO assembles on a regular basis in Geisenheim, Germany, to discuss key areas in PIBO which include diagnostic workup, treatment strategies, and research fields.

PMID: 32076469 [PubMed - in process]

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Preventive Inhalation of Hypertonic Saline in Infants with Cystic Fibrosis (PRESIS). A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 05 15;199(10):1238-1248

Authors: Stahl M, Wielpütz MO, Ricklefs I, Dopfer C, Barth S, Schlegtendal A, Graeber SY, Sommerburg O, Diekmann G, Hüsing J, Koerner-Rettberg C, Nährlich L, Dittrich AM, Kopp MV, Mall MA

Rationale: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts in early infancy, suggesting that preventive treatment may be most beneficial. Lung clearance index (LCI) and chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have emerged as promising endpoints of early CF lung disease; however, randomized controlled trials testing the safety and efficacy of preventive therapies in infants with CF are lacking. Objectives: To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of preventive inhalation with hypertonic saline (HS) compared with isotonic saline (IS) in infants with CF, including LCI and MRI as outcome measures. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 42 infants with CF less than 4 months of age were randomized across five sites to twice-daily inhalation of 6% HS (n = 21) or 0.9% IS (n = 21) for 52 weeks. Measurements and Main Results: Inhalation of HS and IS was generally well tolerated by infants with CF, and the number of adverse events did not differ between groups (P = 0.49). The change in LCI from baseline to Week 52 was larger in infants with CF treated with HS (-0.6) than in those treated with IS (-0.1; P < 0.05). In addition, weight gain was improved in infants with CF treated with HS (P < 0.05), whereas pulmonary exacerbations and chest MRI scores did not differ in the HS group versus the IS group. Conclusions: Preventive inhalation with HS initiated in the first months of life was safe and well tolerated and resulted in improvements in LCI and weight gain in infants with CF. Our results support the feasibility of LCI as an endpoint in randomized controlled trials in infants with CF. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01619657).

PMID: 30409023 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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