Respiratory Medicine Journal
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The authors regret that the original online version of the above article contained an error in Figure 1. This figure has now been updated to correspond with the recommendations of the GINA 2018 report. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized, in a percentage of patients, as an eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. Eosinophils are recognized as a proinflammatory granulocyte playing a major role in the T2-high phenotype, which includes severe eosinophilic asthma. Eosinophilic asthma represents the majority of the phenotypic variants clinically characterized by severity and frequent exacerbations. For patients with severe uncontrolled asthma, monoclonal antibodies are used as add-on treatments.
Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) is a common finding of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) mainly presenting in the form of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP) and deeply affecting patients’ prognosis. Beside NSIP, other types of ILD have been reported. The most recently described pattern is the so-called Combined-pulmonary emphysema and lung fibrosis, characterized by the coexistence of both upper lobes centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema and lower lobes ILD. We presented three cases of patients with SSc, in which High Resolution Computed Tomography examinations showed emphysema with atypical distribution and radiological presentation, without or with mild signs of fibrosing lung disease, that stabilized after immunosuppressive treatment.
This work did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an exaggerated ventilatory response to exercise, contributing to exertional dyspnea and exercise intolerance. We recently demonstrated enhanced activity and sensitivity of the carotid chemoreceptor (CC) in COPD which may alter ventilatory and cardiovascular regulation and negatively affect exercise tolerance. We sought to determine whether CC inhibition improves ventilatory and cardiovascular regulation, dyspnea and exercise tolerance in COPD.
Diagnosing asthma in children is a challenge as symptoms vary over time and a stand-alone diagnostic test is lacking [1–4]. The methacholine challenge test (MCT) can assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), but this test is difficult to perform in young children and time consuming . In contrast fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is measured within minutes and is simple to perform also in young children . So far, only few studies have assessed the usefulness of these tests to diagnose asthma in children with suspected asthma.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by abnormal epithelial repair process that may result in intra-airway accumulation of fibrin. Given that plasma fibrinogen is the only FDA approved biomarker that predicts mortality and COPD exacerbations, we hypothesized that changes in the processing of fibrinogen may provide additional characterization of disease phenotype and COPD progression.
The present study was aimed to compare the respiratory impedance of children residing in areas with different ambient air pollution (AAP).
Fewer researches have been performed on the coexistence of bronchiectasis and asthma due to the neglects and not enough attentions . Recently, Jarkko Mantyla has investigated the characteristics and outcomes of patients with bronchiectasis in Finland, of which he has specifically addressed bronchiectasis caused by asthma . He found that clinical parameters including body mass index (BMI), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) ≥ 4 affected lobes, and the number of hospitalization due to exacerbations were higher in the 25 cases (26%) with bronchiectasis caused by asthma compared to those in the 70 patients with bronchiectasis caused by miscellaneous aetiologies.
Aerosol deposition is a clinically relevant, often overlooked subject. We have therefore read the article by Galindo-Filho et al. which compared two devices and their effectiveness in the aerosol deposition, with interest . The strict characteristics of the enrolled patients, the well-documented figures to understand advanced pattern depositions, providing a sample size calculation to justify a small enrollment and conducting a prior pilot study are the strengths of the research. However, we would like to discuss a few salient points and offer other insight regarding the patients and technology to take into account for future research.