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Inflammatory mediators in the adipo-renal axis: leptin, adiponectin, and soluble ICAM-1.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2020 09 01;319(3):F469-F475

Authors: Hua Y, Herder C, Kalhoff H, Buyken AE, Esche J, Krupp D, Wudy SA, Remer T

Abstract
A lower 24-h urine pH (24h-pH), i.e., a higher renal excretion of free protons, at a given acid load to the body, denotes a reduction in the kidney's capacity for net acid excretion (NAE). There is increasing evidence, not only for patients with type 2 diabetes but also for healthy individuals, that higher body fatness or waist circumference (WC) has a negative impact on renal function to excrete acids (NAE). We hypothesized that adiposity-related inflammation molecules might mediate this relation between adiposity and renal acid excretion function. Twelve biomarkers of inflammation were measured in fasting blood samples from 162 adult participants (18-25 yr old) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study who had undergone anthropometric measurements and collected 24-h urine samples. Both Baron and Kenny's (B&K's) steps to test mediation and causal mediation analysis were conducted to examine the potential mediatory roles of biomarkers of inflammation in the WC-24-h pH relationship after strictly controlling for laboratory-measured NAE. In B&K's mediation analysis, leptin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and adiponectin significantly associated with the outcome 24-h pH and attenuated the WC-pH relation. In agreement herewith, causal mediation analysis estimated the "natural indirect effects" of WC on 24-h pH via leptin (P = 0.01) and adiponectin (P = 0.03) to be significant, with a trend for sICAM-1 (P = 0.09). The calculated proportions mediated by leptin, adiponectin, and sICAM-1 were 64%, 23%, and 12%, respectively. Both mediation analyses identified an inflammatory cytokine (leptin) and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (adiponectin) along with sICAM-1 as being potentially involved in mediating adiposity-related influences on renal acid excretion capacity.

PMID: 32744085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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