New England Journal of Medicine – Hematology/Oncology News

Author: Amy E. Caruso Brown
Author: Seena Fazel
Author: Robert P. Murphy
Author: Nicholas Bagley
Author: David C. Christiani
To the Editor: Combined therapy with an immune checkpoint inhibitor containing antibodies against both CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein) and PD-1 (programmed cell death 1) is an efficient first-line treatment for malignant melanoma. However, in about half the patients who receive…
Type I interferonopathies are monogenic autoinflammatory disorders that are characterized by the overproduction of, or an enhanced response to, type I interferons. USP18 down-regulates signaling by type I interferons by blocking the interaction between JAK1 and the type I interferon receptor 2…
Myelodysplastic syndromes are acquired bone marrow disorders predominating in the elderly and are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, progressive cytopenias, and risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes most commonly manifest with symptomatic…
Although head and neck cancer is associated with pain, disfiguration, dysfunction, psychosocial distress, and death, recent advances have brought substantial improvements in outcomes. The introduction of immune-checkpoint inhibitors for treatment of recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer led…
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated gene therapy is increasingly recognized for its potential to treat many monogenic diseases, including hemophilia A and B, by means of delivery of complementary DNA encoding functional factor VIII or factor IX proteins, respectively. To date, a single…
In patients with advanced or metastatic non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) (exon 19 deletions or L858R point mutations), guidelines recommend treatment with an…
He sat on the emergency department bed, face gaunt and sallow, arms cradling his protuberant belly with the wariness of a man who knew something was terribly wrong but feared that acknowledging it would make it real. Infected with HIV and hepatitis B, he had been plodding along reasonably well…
To the Editor: Approximately 2 months into an International Space Station mission, obstructive left internal jugular venous thrombosis was suspected in an astronaut during an ultrasound examination that was performed as part of a vascular research study. The astronaut reported no headache or…
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men in the United States and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in Europe. Four different classes of medical treatments have prolonged survival among patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer,…
Since 2004, eight therapeutic agents have received approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of men with advanced prostate cancer. Four are androgen-signaling–targeted inhibitors that impair androgen-receptor function (abiraterone, enzalutamide, apalutamide, and…
To the Editor: Active surveillance is considered to be appropriate treatment for men with low-risk prostate cancer. An analysis of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 2015 showed that black men were less likely to undergo active surveillance than men of…
Since the introduction of paclitaxel in 1996, efforts to augment the efficacy of treatment in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer have yielded limited success. The introductions of weekly paclitaxel therapy, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and bevacizumab therapy are recognized alterations…
Newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer is treated with curative intent. However, owing to late diagnosis with advanced-stage disease, the vast majority of patients have a relapse (after a median of 10 to 18 months), despite being treated with cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy.…
The introduction of "personalized medicine" has spurred major changes in oncology, but success has been spread unevenly across the spectrum of solid tumors. Although prognoses for adenocarcinoma of the lung and melanoma have been profoundly altered, other diseases, such as colon cancer and ovarian…
Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in women worldwide. The standard treatment for newly diagnosed advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is surgical cytoreduction and systemic platinum–taxane combination chemotherapy. Unfortunately, up to 85% of the patients with…
Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science devoted to the performance of tasks that normally require human intelligence. A major subbranch of this field is machine learning, in which computers learn to perform tasks by analyzing data rather than requiring specific programming…
Failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)–positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) may result from resistance to or unacceptable side effects from the drug or both. Currently approved TKIs mainly target the ATP-binding site of BCR-ABL1, and…
Approximately 15 to 20% of metastatic breast cancers are characterized by overexpression or amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The recommended first-line therapy for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer consists of the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab and…
Approximately 15 to 20% of breast cancers overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Despite dramatic therapeutic advances over the past 20 years, most patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer ultimately die from their disease. Moreover, as systemic therapies have…
Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) have emerged as important targets in the treatment of breast cancer, given their role in cell-cycle progression and the successes that inhibitors of these kinases have had in improving outcomes in patients with advanced breast cancer. Ribociclib is one of…
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