Head and Neck Neoplasms – Pubmed

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Choanal stenosis post radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: about an endoscopic management.

Pan Afr Med J. 2019;34:111

Authors: Lakhdar Y, Rochd S, Elbouderkaoui M, Rochdi Y, Nouri H, Raji A

Abstract
Choanal atresia is a rare complication of radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which has to be early detected. Its treatment is based on endoscopic endonasale surgery. We report a rare case of choanal stenosis observed in a 54-year-old patient, Ho presented 4 years after the end of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a progressive bilateral nasal obstruction, anosmia, and rhinorrhea without bleeding. The diagnostic of fibrous stenosis was confirmed by endonasal endoscopic examination coupled to CT scan of nasopharynx. The recanalization via endoscopic endonasal surgery with tube calibration gave a great functional result with the improvement of nasal symptoms. Even after 6 months of follow-up, there were no signs of restenosis.

PMID: 31934253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Icon for Wolters Kluwer Related Articles

The prognostic value of the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes before and after intensity modulated radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Jan;99(2):e18545

Authors: Liu J, Wei C, Tang H, Liu Y, Liu W, Lin C

Abstract
This study aimed to determine the impact of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) on the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) before and after intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).Pre/post-treatment and changes in inflammatory biomarker levels of 207 patients who were diagnosed with NPC and received IMRT between January 2012 and December 2014 were analyzed, and the cellular biomarker analyses were from patient blood. ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis was used to decide the optimal cutoff values of NLR and changes in NLR (ΔNLR) and PLR (ΔPLR). The Kaplan-Meier and logarithmic rank methods were used to compare overall survival times between groups. Univariate analysis was used to investigate the effects of age, gender, histology, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), TNM stage, clinical stage, course of disease and lymphocyte, neutrophil and platelet counts as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels on the prognosis of NPC. The independent predictors of OS were determined by Cox multivariate regression analysis.The optimal cut-off values of NLR, PLR, ΔNLR and ΔPLR were 2.49, 155.82, 1.80, and 100.00, respectively. These were used to classify patients into high (NLR > 2.49) and low NLR groups (NLR < 2.49); high (PLR>155.82) and low (PLR < 155.82) PLR groups; high (ΔNLR>1.80) and low ΔNLR groups (ΔNLR < 1.80); high (ΔPLR > 100.00) and low ΔPLR groups (ΔPLR < 100.00). TNM stage, clinical stage and ALP levels were highly correlated with high NLR and PLR. Cox multivariate regression analysis suggested that the ΔNLR (HR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.33∼2.78) was independent of the characteristics for NPC.As a novel inflammatory index, ΔNLR appears to have some predictive power for the prognosis of patients with NPC.

PMID: 31914029 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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[Study on Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Jiang's Gastroesophageal Anastomosis after Oncologic Esophagectomy].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2019 Dec;50(6):925-929

Authors: Guo DM, Wang ZQ, Xu W, Li ZF, Jiang YQ

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference of health-related quality of life after oncologic esophagectomy between the patients using Jiang's gastroesophageal anastomosis and traditional end-to-end gastroesophageal anastomosis.
METHODS: A total of 419 patients (223 in Jiang's anastomosis group, and 196 in end-to-end anastomosis group) underwent minimal invasive esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis from October 2012 to August 2016. All patients received radical esophageal cancer resection and cervical anastomosis. EORTC-QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OES18 were used to assess the health-related quality of life at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, 24th month after esophagectomy.
RESULTS: There were 25 dimensions and items in EORTC-QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OES18. The postoperative quality of life decreased obviously at the 1st month and then recovered obviously at the 6th month after the surgery, and it ranged small at the 12th and 24th month. Compared with end-to-end anastomosis group, Jiang's anastomosis group had less reflux and less cough at the 1st month (P=0.023, P=0.010) and the 3rd month (P=0.004, P=0.013), then had better emotional function, less reflux and less cough at the 6th month (P=0.013, P=0.014, P=0.043), better emotional function, less nausea, and less reflux at the 12th month(P=0.004, P=0.023, P=0.021), as well as less reflux at the 24th month (P=0.020). There was no significant difference in other dimensions and items between the two groups during the follow-up period.
CONCLUSION: Jiang's anastomosis is safe and feasible, and could improve the postoperative quality of life of the patients with esophagectomy. It is worth to further application in clinical practice.

PMID: 31880126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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[BRAF V600E Mutation and TERT Promoter Mutation in Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas and Their Association with Clinicopathological Characteristics].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2019 Dec;50(6):919-924

Authors: Yang T, Chen C, Pan NF, Sun LY, Jiang XL, Li JN, Tang Y, Jiang Y

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations with the clinicopathological features in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
METHODS: The mutations of BRAF V600E and TERT promoters were examined by PCR-direct sequencing in tumor tissues from 326 PTC patients, while the relationships between the gene mutations and clinicopathological features were analyzed.
RESULTS: BRAF V600E mutation was found in 269/326 (82.52%), and TERT promoter mutation in 11/326 (3.37%) of PTC patients. In site mutations of TERT promoter, 9 cases were C228T and 2 cases were C250T. Single factor analysis showed that BRAF V600E mutations were significantly associated with age and recurrence/distant metastasis of tumor (P < 0.05), while TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with age, tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, T stage, AJCC stage and recurrence/distant metastasis of tumor (P < 0.05). Coexistence of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations (BRAF+/TERT+) were particularly associated with age, tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, T stage and AJCC stage (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Coexistence of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations in PTC shows more aggressive tumor behavior.

PMID: 31880125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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What is your diagnosis? Nasal lesion in a horse with exophthalmos.

Vet Clin Pathol. 2019 Dec;48(4):771-773

Authors: Zibura AE, Manning LK, Gwynn A, Sharkey L, de Linde Henriksen M, Coppelman E, O'Brien TD

PMID: 31701559 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for early oral cavity cancer (pT1-2,N0-1): A review.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2019 Nov;143:67-75

Authors: Ivaldi E, Di Mario D, Paderno A, Piazza C, Bossi P, Iacovelli NA, Incandela F, Locati L, Fallai C, Orlandi E

Abstract
Early stage (T1-2, N0-1) oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a generally favorable prognostic outcome. However, locoregional recurrences can occur in up to 30-35% of patients, and 20% will eventually die of disease. National and international treatment guidelines do not recommend the use of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in a setting of early OSCC, and highlight surgery alone as the standard single modality treatment. Notwithstanding, the negative prognostic impact of some adverse pathological features, such as perineural and lymphovascular invasion, poor differentiation, depth of invasion >4 mm, and presence of nodal metastasis, is well known. The advantages of PORT in such scenarios are still debated. The aim of this study was to review the more recent literature to provide evidence on the benefits of PORT in the context of early stage OSCC.

PMID: 31499275 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Prediction of response after chemoradiation for esophageal cancer using a combination of dosimetry and CT radiomics.

Eur Radiol. 2019 Nov;29(11):6080-6088

Authors: Jin X, Zheng X, Chen D, Jin J, Zhu G, Deng X, Han C, Gong C, Zhou Y, Liu C, Xie C

Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the treatment response prediction feasibility and accuracy of an integrated model combining computed tomography (CT) radiomic features and dosimetric parameters for patients with esophageal cancer (EC) who underwent concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using machine learning.
METHODS: The radiomic features and dosimetric parameters of 94 EC patients were extracted and modeled using Support Vector Classification (SVM) and Extreme Gradient Boosting algorithm (XGBoost). The 94-sample dataset was randomly divided into a 70-sample training subset and a 24-sample independent test set while keeping the class proportions intact via stratification. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of models using radiomic features alone and using combined radiomic features and dosimetric parameters.
RESULTS: A total of 42 radiomic features and 18 dosimetric parameters plus the patients' characteristic parameters were extracted for these 94 cases (58 responders and 36 non-responders). XGBoost plus principal component analysis (PCA) achieved an accuracy and area under the curve of 0.708 and 0.541, respectively, for models with radiomic features combined with dosimetric parameters, and 0.689 and 0.479, respectively, for radiomic features alone. Image features of GlobalMean X.333.1, Coarseness, Skewness, and GlobalStd contributed most to the model. The dosimetric parameters of gross tumor volume (GTV) homogeneity index (HI), Cord Dmax, Prescription dose, Heart-Dmean, and Heart-V50 also had a strong contribution to the model.
CONCLUSIONS: The model with radiomic features combined with dosimetric parameters is promising and outperforms that with radiomic features alone in predicting the treatment response of patients with EC who underwent CRT.
KEY POINTS: • The model with radiomic features combined with dosimetric parameters is promising in predicting the treatment response of patients with EC who underwent CRT. • The model with radiomic features combined with dosimetric parameters (prediction accuracy of 0.708 and AUC of 0.689) outperforms that with radiomic features alone (best prediction accuracy of 0.625 and AUC of 0.412). • The image features of GlobalMean X.333.1, Coarseness, Skewness, and GlobalStd contributed most to the treatment response prediction model. The dosimetric parameters of GTV HI, Cord Dmax, Prescription dose, Heart-Dmean, and Heart-V50 also had a strong contribution to the model.

PMID: 31028447 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: prediction of cervical lymph node metastasis by dual-energy CT texture analysis with machine learning.

Eur Radiol. 2019 Nov;29(11):6172-6181

Authors: Forghani R, Chatterjee A, Reinhold C, Pérez-Lara A, Romero-Sanchez G, Ueno Y, Bayat M, Alexander JWM, Kadi L, Chankowsky J, Seuntjens J, Forghani B

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in order to evaluate a novel risk stratification model using dual-energy CT (DECT) texture analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with machine learning to (1) predict associated cervical lymphadenopathy and (2) compare the accuracy of spectral versus single-energy (65 keV) texture evaluation for endpoint prediction.
METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with HNSCC were evaluated. Texture feature extraction was performed on virtual monochromatic images (VMIs) at 65 keV alone or different sets of multi-energy VMIs ranging from 40 to 140 keV, in addition to iodine material decomposition maps and other clinical information. Random forests (RF) models were constructed for outcome prediction with internal cross-validation in addition to the use of separate randomly selected training (70%) and testing (30%) sets. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined for predicting positive versus negative nodal status in the neck.
RESULTS: Depending on the model used and subset of patients evaluated, an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of up to 88, 100, 67, 83, and 100%, respectively, could be achieved using multi-energy texture analysis. Texture evaluation of VMIs at 65 keV alone or in combination with only iodine maps had a much lower accuracy.
CONCLUSIONS: Multi-energy DECT texture analysis of HNSCC is superior to texture analysis of 65 keV VMIs and iodine maps alone and can be used to predict cervical nodal metastases with relatively high accuracy, providing information not currently available by expert evaluation of the primary tumor alone.
KEY POINTS: • Texture features of HNSCC tumor are predictive of nodal status. • Multi-energy texture analysis is superior to analysis of datasets at a single energy. • Dual-energy CT texture analysis with machine learning can enhance noninvasive diagnostic tumor evaluation.

PMID: 30980127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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