Surgical Reconstruction of the Acetabulum and Pelvis in Metastatic Bone Disease.
Instr Course Lect. 2019;68:593-606
Authors: DiCaprio M, Ippolito JA, Benevenia J
Management of a painful metastatic acetabular lesion is complex and requires the assessment of tumor size and location, remaining integrity of the acetabulum, analgesic requirements, ability to use postoperative radiation, and projected patient survival. Patients presenting with suspected periacetabular metastasis frequently have groin pain aggravated by weight bearing. After a complete physical examination, advanced imaging and a complete laboratory workup should be performed to assess the extent of local and systemic disease. If a patient has a previously identified metastatic lesion, it is beneficial to communicate with the patient's medical oncologist to gather information on responses to chemotherapeutic agents, hormonal agents, and radiation therapy. Management may be nonsurgical, interventional, or surgical. Despite the limited life expectancy of patients with periacetabular metastasis, when performed in the appropriate setting, reconstruction by using anti-protrusio cages, screws, and cemented hip arthroplasty can improve quality of life by aiding independent ambulation and decreasing pain.
PMID: 32032205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Proximal Femur Fractures in Children: Enigmatic Injuries.
Instr Course Lect. 2019;68:443-452
Authors: Anari JB, Sankar W, Hosseinzadeh P, Baldwin KD
Proximal femoral fractures in the skeletally immature patient can be challenging for the orthopaedic surgeon to manage. This type of injury includes the femoral head/neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric fractures. The Delbet classification system historically describes all injuries in the pediatric proximal femur, except subtrochanteric fractures. Understanding the possible complications (coxa vara, osteonecrosis, premature physeal closure, nonunion) when managing these injuries can help with preoperative and intraoperative decision making. Although the understanding of proximal femur fractures has improved, many of the risk factors for poor outcomes in these injuries are not modifiable. Familiarity with the history, classification, complications, factors influencing the outcome, and management options available in 2018 will help improve the outcomes of pediatric proximal femur fractures.
PMID: 32032056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Recurrent Dislocation After Total Hip Arthroplasty: Controversies and Solutions.
Instr Course Lect. 2019;68:169-186
Authors: Sutter EG, Jones SA, Kleeman-Forsthuber LT, Lachiewicz PF, Wellman SS
Instability remains one of the most common complications after total hip arthroplasty and a notable cause of patient morbidity as well as patient and surgeon dissatisfaction. Isolated dislocations can often be managed successfully with closed reduction; however, recurrent instability poses a substantial diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The causes are varied and may be related to patient, surgical, and implant factors. A thorough evaluation is important in determining the cause of instability and effectively managing this difficult problem. Management options include component revision for malposition, modular exchange, or revision to specialized components, such as larger femoral heads, constrained liners, or dual-mobility articulations.
PMID: 32032055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip From Birth to Arthroplasty: Clear Indications and New Controversies.
Instr Course Lect. 2019;68:319-336
Authors: Rosenfeld SB, Weinstein SL, Schoenecker JG, Matheney T
Developmental dysplasia of the hip is the all-encompassing term used to describe the wide spectrum of disorders of the development of the hip that manifest in various forms and at different ages. Developmental dysplasia of the hip often evolves over time because the structures of the hip are normal during embryogenesis but gradually become abnormal. Such variability in pathology is associated with a similarly wide range in management options and recommendations aimed at preventing hip joint arthrosis. These options may be instituted at any time between birth and adulthood as techniques aimed at preserving the native hip or replacing the arthritic hip. Many of these management options are clearly indicated and considered standard practice. However, with the evolution of the understanding of hip biomechanics, better knowledge of the long-term outcomes of hip joint-preserving surgeries, and ever-improving technology influencing hip arthroplasty come new controversies, especially whether to preserve or replace the mature hip.
PMID: 32032049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Displaced Radial Neck Fractures: What Are My Options?
Instr Course Lect. 2019;68:375-382
Authors: Shlykov MA, Milbrandt TA, Abzug JM, Baldwin KD, Hosseinzadeh P
Pediatric radial head and neck fractures are uncommon injuries. Fractures are classified using the Judet system based on fracture angulation and displacement. Judet type I and II fractures can be managed nonsurgically with a short course of immobilization in a cast or splint without closed reduction. Most of these patients have an excellent prognosis and functional outcomes. Judet type III and IV injuries, as well as injuries that demonstrate a mechanical block to motion, should be closed reduced with the patient under conscious sedation or general anesthesia. Patients who undergo an unsuccessful closed reduction require closed or open reduction in the operating room. Closed reduction methods include the push and lever techniques with the use of Kirschner wires or Steinmann pins or intramedullary nails. Percutaneous fixation with wires or pins is needed only if the fracture fragment is determined to be unstable, whereas nails are left in place and require a second surgery for removal. Both methods have similar outcomes and an overall positive prognosis for patients. Open reduction and internal fixation should be avoided if at all possible given the higher incidence of wide-ranging complications.
PMID: 32032046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The Current Treatment of Hip Fractures: Can a Consensus Be Reached?
Instr Course Lect. 2019;68:13-28
Authors: Blankstein M, O'Toole RV, Slobogean G, Sanders D, Schemitsch EH
There is a significant global burden of disease associated with the management of hip fractures. Despite numerous studies that are focused on the treatment of patients with proximal femur fractures, the management of these injuries remains controversial. Clinicians should become familiar with the current evidence regarding the management of these common injuries and understand the key issues and controversies because they will have important implications given the large-scale effect of hip fractures internationally.
PMID: 32032038 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Avoiding and Managing Complications After Hip Fracture Fixation.
Instr Course Lect. 2019;68:29-38
Authors: McMillan TE, Stevenson I, Lawendy AR, Donohoe E, Olson SA, Schemitsch EH
There is an enormous burden of disease associated with the management of a failed hip fracture fixation. The goal of surgical management is to facilitate an early return to mobilization with the retention of as much independence as possible. Despite numerous studies that are focused on the care of patients with proximal femur fractures, complication rates remain high. Surgeons should review current strategies to avoid and manage complications after hip fracture fixation. This will have important implications given the detrimental consequences of failed management of hip fractures, including permanent disability, life-threatening medical complications, and an increased risk of death.
PMID: 32032036 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
It's All About the Timing: When Do I Take This Injury to the Operating Room?
Instr Course Lect. 2019;68:3-12
Authors: Tejwani NC, Nork S, Kubiak EN, Podolnick J, Wolinsky PR
Over time, what was considered urgent or emergent in orthopaedic trauma has been revisited, and as awareness of factors associated with outcomes has increased, priorities have changed. There are multiple procedures performed urgently in the belief that early intervention allowed for better outcomes for the injury and the patient. Classic examples of conditions for which urgent intervention has been implemented include open fractures, femoral neck fractures in the young adult, talus fractures, and compartment syndrome. All of these conditions are considered nonurgent except for compartment syndrome, which requires urgent and timely intervention. Studies have demonstrated that these injuries need to be managed in a timely fashion but not necessarily in the middle of the night. Outcomes can be improved by measures such as early antibiotic administration for open fractures, closed reduction of talus fracture-dislocations, and anatomic reduction of femoral neck fractures. These measures are more important and useful than an emergent trip to the operating room by inexperienced surgeons with staff who may be unprepared. Orthopaedic surgeons should be familiar with open fractures and the timing of irrigation and débridement, the relative urgency of managing talus fractures, and the need for immediate reduction and fixation of femoral neck fractures. For each of these injuries, factors other than timing that affect outcomes will be described. Finally, the emergent nature of diagnosis and management of compartment syndrome must also be understood.
PMID: 32032033 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Using personalized 3D printed Titanium sleeve-prosthetic composite for reconstruction of severe segmental bone loss of proximal femur in revision total hip arthroplasty: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Jan;99(3):e18784
Authors: Wang X, Xu H, Zhang J
RATIONALE: Allograft-prosthetic composites (APCs) and proximal femoral replacement have been applied for reconstruction of severe segmental femoral bone loss in revision total hip arthroplasty. The outcomes are encouraging but the complication rate is relatively high. Considering the high complication rates and mixed results of APCs and megaprosthesis, we presented a case using personalized 3D printed Titanium sleeve-prosthetic composite for reconstruction of segmental bone defect.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old woman presented to the emergency department on account of acute severe pain of the left hip without history of trauma. She had undergone a cemented total hip arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of femoral head at the left side in 2000. In 2013 she underwent a cemented revision total hip arthroplasty as a result of aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis. She denied obvious discomfort prior to this episode since the revision surgery in 2013.
DIAGNOSIS: According to the clinical history, imaging and physical examination, we confirmed the diagnosis of severe segmental bone loss of proximal femur and fracture of prosthetic stem. The femoral bone defect was evaluated using the Paprosky classification system and rated as Type 3B, and the acetabular bone defect was rated as Type 2C.
INTERVENTIONS: In this study, we present the first case of severe segmental bone loss of proximal femur in revision total hip arthroplasty that was successfully treated using personalized 3D printed Titanium sleeve-prosthetic composite OUTCOMES:: At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was symptom free with a Harris Hip Score of 91. Radiographs showed excellent osteointegration between the interface of sleeve-prosthetic composite and the host bone, with no signs of implant loosening or subsidence.
LESSONS: Despite the absence of long term results of 3D printed Titanium sleeve-prosthetic composite reconstruction, the good clinical and radiological outcome at 2 years follow up implied its potential role for reconstruction of segmental femoral bone defect in revision THA.
PMID: 32011474 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Three-dimensional structural optimization of a cementless hip stem using a bi-directional evolutionary method.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2020 Jan;23(1):1-11
Authors: Rahchamani R, Soheilifard R
A correct choice of stem geometry can increase the lifetime of hip implant in a total hip arthroplasty. This study presents a numerical methodology for structural optimization of stem geometry using a bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization method. The optimization problem was formulated with the objective of minimizing the stresses in the bone-stem interface. Finite element analysis was used to obtain stress distributions by three-dimensional simulation of the implant and the surrounding bone under normal walking conditions. To compare the initial and the optimal stems, the von Mises stress distribution in the bone-implant interface was investigated. Results showed that the optimization procedure leads to a decrease in the stress concentration in the implant and a reduction in stress shielding of the surrounding bone. Furthermore, periprosthetic bone adaptation was analyzed numerically using an adaptive bone remodeling procedure. The remodeling results showed that the bone mass loss could be reduced by 16% in the optimal implant compared to the initial one.
PMID: 31565967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Postoperative Serum Levels of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-17 (IL-17), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in Patients Following Hip Replacement Surgery for Traumatic Fractured Femoral Neck: A Retrospective Study.
Med Sci Monit. 2019 Aug 16;25:6120-6127
Authors: Zhang H, Tai H, Ma Y, Li Y, Dang Z, Wang J, Zhao L
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of postoperative serum levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in patients who required hip replacement surgery for traumatic fractured neck of femur. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study included 180 patients who had hip replacement surgery for traumatic fractured neck of femur and a control group of 100 patients. Differences between the two groups were compared for serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-17, and TNF-alpha, and the Harris Hip Score (HHS) (maximum 100 points) using Pearson's correlation. RESULTS Serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-17, and TNF-alpha in the control group were significantly lower than those in the study group (P<0.05). According to the HHS, there were 53 patients in the excellent group, 65 patients in the good group, 43 patients in the fair group and 19 patients in the poor group. Postoperative indicator analysis showed significant differences in IL-1ß, IL-17, and TNF-alpha levels between the four groups (P<0.05). Clinical indicators increased from the excellent group to the poor group, with significant differences between the four groups (P<0.05). Postoperative levels of IL-1ß, IL-17, and TNF-alpha were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant correlation with the clinical indicators (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In patients with hip replacement surgery for traumatic fractured neck of femur, measurement of postoperative serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-17, and TNF-alpha were shown to be potential prognostic indicators.
PMID: 31417072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The Maternal and Paternal Effects on Clinically and Surgically Defined Osteoarthritis.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 11;71(11):1844-1848
Authors: Weldingh E, Johnsen MB, Hagen KB, Østerås N, Risberg MA, Natvig B, Slatkowsky-Christensen B, Fenstad AM, Furnes O, Nordsletten L, Magnusson K
OBJECTIVE: It is currently unknown whether osteoarthritis (OA) is inherited mainly from the mother, father, or both. This study was undertaken to explore the effect of maternal and paternal factors on hip, knee, and hand OA in offspring.
METHODS: Participants from the Musculoskeletal Pain in Ullensaker Study (MUST) (69% female; mean ± SD age 64 ± 9 years) and a Norwegian OA twin study (Nor-Twin) (56% female; 49 ± 11 years) reported whether their mother and/or father had OA. Using a recurrence risk estimation approach, we calculated whether maternal and paternal OA increased the risk of 1) surgically defined hip and knee OA (i.e., total joint replacement) and 2) clinically defined hip, knee, and hand OA (i.e., the American College of Rheumatology criteria) using logistic regression. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.
RESULTS: Maternal OA consistently increased the risk of offspring OA across different OA locations and severities. Having a mother with OA increased the risk of any OA in daughters (RR 1.13 [95% CI 1.02-1.25] in the MUST cohort; RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.05-1.97] in the Nor-Twin cohort) but not (or with less certainty) in sons (RR 1.16 [95% CI 0.95-1.43] in the MUST cohort; RR 1.31 [95% CI 0.71-2.41] in the Nor-Twin cohort). Having a father with OA was less likely to increase the risk of any OA in daughters (RR 1.00 [95% CI 0.85-1.16] in the MUST cohort; RR 1.52 [95% CI 0.94-2.46] in the Nor-Twin cohort) and sons (RR 1.08 [95% CI 0.83-1.41] in the MUST cohort; RR 0.93 [95% CI 0.35-2.48] in the Nor-Twin cohort).
CONCLUSION: OA in the mother increased the risk of surgically and clinically defined hip, knee, and hand OA in offspring, particularly in daughters. Our findings imply that heredity of OA may be linked to maternal genes and/or maternal-specific factors such as the fetal environment.
PMID: 31237417 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Comparison of a Potential Hospital Quality Metric With Existing Metrics for Surgical Quality-Associated Readmission.
JAMA Netw Open. 2019 04 05;2(4):e191313
Authors: Graham LA, Mull HJ, Wagner TH, Morris MS, Rosen AK, Richman JS, Whittle J, Burns E, Copeland LA, Itani KMF, Hawn MT
Importance: The existing readmission quality metric does not meaningfully distinguish readmissions associated with surgical quality from those that are not associated with surgical quality and thus may not reflect the quality of surgical care.
Objective: To compare a quality metric that classifies readmissions associated with surgical quality with the existing metric of any unplanned readmission in a surgical population.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study using US nationwide administrative data collected on 4 high-volume surgical procedures performed at 103 Veterans Affairs hospitals from October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2014. Data analysis was conducted from October 1, 2017, to January 24, 2019.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital-level rates of unplanned readmission (existing metric) and surgical readmissions associated with surgical quality (new metric) in the 30 days following hospital discharge for an inpatient surgical procedure.
Results: The study population included 109 258 patients who underwent surgery at 103 hospitals. Patients were majority male (94.1%) and white (78.2%) with a mean (SD) age of 64.0 (10.0) years at the time of surgery. After case-mix adjustment, 30-day surgical readmissions ranged from 4.6% (95% CI, 4.5%-4.8%) among knee arthroplasties to 11.1% (95% CI, 10.9%-11.3%) among colorectal resections. The new surgical readmission metric was significantly correlated with facility-level postdischarge complications for all procedures, with ρ coefficients ranging from 0.33 (95% CI, 0.13-0.51) for cholecystectomy to 0.52 (95% CI, 0.38-0.68) for colorectal resection. Correlations between postdischarge complications and the new surgical readmission metric were higher than correlations between complications and the existing readmission metric for all procedures examined (knee arthroplasty: 0.50 vs 0.48; hip replacement: 0.44 vs 0.18; colorectal resection: 0.52 vs 0.42; and cholecystectomy: 0.33 vs 0.10). When compared with using the existing readmission metric, using the new surgical readmission metric could change hip replacement-associated payment penalty determinations in 28.4% of hospitals and knee arthroplasty-associated penalties in 26.0% of hospitals.
Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, surgical quality-associated readmissions were more correlated with postdischarge complications at a higher rate than were unplanned readmissions. Thus, a metric based on such readmissions may be a better measure of surgical care quality. This work provides an important step in the development of future value-based payments and promotes evidence-based quality metrics targeting the quality of surgical care.
PMID: 31002316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Dual mobility cups in total hip arthroplasty after failed internal fixation of proximal femoral fractures.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2019 05;105(3):491-495
Authors: Boulat S, Neri T, Boyer B, Philippot R, Farizon F
INTRODUCTION: Performing total hip arthroplasty (THA) following failed internal fixation of proximal femur fractures is associated with an elevated risk of implant dislocation. We hypothesized that using a dual mobility (DM) cup will help to reduce the risk of postoperative instability in this specific context.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 33 consecutive patients who underwent DM THA following failed internal fixation of a proximal femur fracture. The clinical assessment consisted of the Postel-Merle d'Aubigné and HHS scores along with an analysis of preoperative and follow-up radiographs. The primary outcome was the occurrence of implant dislocation.
RESULTS: At the last follow-up (44±24 months), 7 patients had died and 0 were lost to follow-up. Only one dislocation had occurred (3%). The mean PMA and HSS scores of 14.8 and 80 respectively were significantly better than the preoperative scores. There were no cases of aseptic loosening.
CONCLUSION: The use of DM cups in the context of THA following failed internal fixation of proximal femur fractures helps to reduce the risk of dislocation. Thus DM cups are recommended in this indication with high risk of postoperative instability.
PMID: 30922807 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Routine monitoring for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following lower limb arthroplasty: Is it necessary? A prospective study in a UK district general hospital.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2019 05;105(3):497-501
Authors: Haughton B, Haughton J, George Norman J, Navid A, Allport K, Andrews M, Mannan K, Livesey J
INTRODUCTION: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with heparin administration. Many orthopaedic units routinely prescribe low-molecular-weight heparins as thromboprophylaxis after hip and knee arthroplasty.
HYPOTHESIS: We postulated that routine platelet monitoring following heparin administration is of no clinical benefit. We therefore asked: firstly, what was the rate of thrombocytopenia in a large population of patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty? Secondly, did this rate justify routine platelet monitoring?
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unless contraindicated, all patients (n=1999, 53.05% female, mean age 69.23 years) at a UK district general hospital undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty were given daily prophylactic enoxaparin. Platelet counts were obtained between the 8th and 10th postoperative days and compared to preoperative baseline. A > 50% fall in platelet count was classified as "possible HIT". The minimal acceptable risk of thrombocytopenia was defined using The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 guidelines, which recommend monitoring platelet counts in patients receiving heparin where the expected risk of HIT is>1% and by descriptive cost-benefit analysis based on the cost of routine platelet monitoring in the clinical setting.
RESULTS: Complete results were available for 1361 (68.1%) patients, comprising: 653 primary hips, 22 revision hips, 1 hip resurfacing, 665 primary knees, 19 revision knees and 1 unicompartmental knee replacement. Mean platelet level was 281.9×109/L preoperatively and 527.83×109/L postoperatively. Forty-four patients (3.2%) experienced a postoperative fall in platelet levels. However, no patient experienced a drop in platelets to less than 50% of the preoperative value.
DISCUSSION: The incidence of HIT in the elective arthroplasty population is low. Therefore, routine postoperative monitoring of platelets is not necessary in this population of patients.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II, prospective study.
PMID: 30878232 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Validation of the Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) to predict 30-day mortality in patients with an intracapsular hip fracture.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2019 05;105(3):485-489
Authors: de Jong L, Mal Klem T, Kuijper TM, Roukema GR
BACKGROUND: The Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) was developed to predict 30-day mortality following a fracture of the hip. While the NHFS has been validated in three hip fracture populations within Great Britain, these studies make no distinction between the type of fracture and surgery. Literature 'however' shows an increased risk for mortality after a hemi-arthroplasty following an intra-capsular hip fracture. To verify whether the mortality after an intra-capsular hip fracture is higher compared to the predicted mortality score according to the NHFS, a validation of the NHFS in patients with a hemi-arthroplasty after an intra-capsular hip fracture was performed.
METHODS: The NHFS was calculated for consecutive patients presenting with an intra-capsular fracture of the hip in two level II trauma teaching hospitals between 1 January 2011 and 1 May 2016. The observed 30-day mortality was compared with that predicted by the NHFS using several validation statistics.
RESULTS: A total of 901 patients were included in the present study. Mean age in the patients was 83 years (SD 8) and 623 (68%) of the patients were female. Almost 60% of the patients had an ASA-score (American Society of Anaesthesiologists [ASA]) of≥3 and overall 30-day mortality was 9.5% (n=86). The median NHFS was 5, and there was no significant change in median NHFS over the past 5 years. The mortality rate in the studied population of hemi-arthroplasty patients was significantly higher than mortality rates predicted by the NHFS (p=0.022, Pearson's Chi-squared test).
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that for a patient with a hemi-arthroplasty following an intra-capsular hip fracture, there could be an underestimation for the 30-day mortality rate following the NHFS prediction model.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III, retrospective cohort study.
PMID: 30862492 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Is non-operative treatment still relevant for Garden Type I fractures in elderly patients? The femoral neck impaction angle as a new CT parameter for determining the indications of non-operative treatment.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2019 05;105(3):479-483
Authors: Hardy J, Collin C, Mathieu PA, Vergnenègre G, Charissoux JL, Marcheix PS
BACKGROUND: The indications of non-operative treatment of undisplaced femoral neck fractures are controversial. The objective of this study was to assess whether two computed tomography (CT) parameters, the femoral neck impaction angle (IA) and the femoral neck posterior tilt angle (PTA), were effective in predicting the risk of secondary displacement after non-operative treatment of Garden I femoral neck fractures in patients aged 65 years or over.
HYPOTHESIS: The working hypotheses were that the IA in the coronal plane and PTA in the axial plane predicted secondary displacement after non-operative treatment of Garden I femoral neck fractures, could be reproducibly and reliably measured on CT scans, and could serve to identify Garden I fractures at risk for secondary displacement after non-operative treatment.
METHODS: Forty-nine patients aged 65 years or over with Garden I fractures treated non-operatively were included in a prospective single-centre study. CT images were used to measure the IA as the position of the fracture line relative to the femoral head in the coronal plane and the PTA as the position of the femoral head centre relative to the femoral neck axis in the axial plane.
RESULTS: After non-operative treatment, secondary displacement occurred in 22 (45%) patients. The PTA was not significantly different between the groups with vs. without secondary displacement (p=0.62). IA values≤135° were significantly associated with secondary displacement (odds ratio, 11.73; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 3.04-45.28; p=0.004). An IA≤135° was 72.73% sensitive and 81.48% specific for predicting secondary displacement. IA measurement was reproducible, with intra-class and inter-class Cohen's kappa values of 0.94 (95%CI, 0.90-0.97) and 0.9011 (95%CI, 0.83-0.94), respectively.
DISCUSSION: The IA measured on CT images may hold promise for identifying Garden I hip fractures at high risk for secondary displacement after non-operative treatment. IA measurement is reproducible and reliable and may help to determine the indications of non-operative treatment.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II, prospective cohort study.
PMID: 30858044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Protocol for a prospective cohort study of assessing postoperative cognitive changes after total hip and knee arthroplasty in the Greater Toronto area.
BMJ Open. 2019 02 24;9(2):e024259
Authors: Choi S, Avramescu S, Orser BA, Au S
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive changes after anaesthesia and surgery, such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), are common and lead to poor outcomes and increased healthcare costs. While several interventions for delirium exist, there are no effective treatment strategies for POCD. Understanding the risks and contributing factors may offer clinicians unique opportunities to better identify and develop preventative interventions for those at higher risk. Elderly patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery are at high risk of developing postoperative delirium (PD) and POCD. The incidence of POCD has not been rigorously studied in the total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) population. Therefore, we have designed a prospective, observational cohort study to assess POCD in patients undergoing THA/TKA, both increasingly common procedures. The incidence of PD and POCD in a high volume, tertiary care arthroplasty centre will be determined and associated risk factors will be identified.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Cognitive function will be tested with a computer-based cognitive assessment tool [CogState Brief Battery], preoperatively at baseline and postoperatively while in hospital at (<3 days), 6 weeks and 4.5 months. The primary outcome is the incidence of postoperative cognitive decline at 4.5 months. Logistic regression analysis is planned to test the association of POCD with several potential risk factors. In addition, delirium will be assessed preoperatively and postoperatively in the hospital using the Confusion Assessment Method (3D-CAM).
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol for this prospective observational study was approved by the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Research Ethics Board (REB#: 040-2017). Recruitment commenced in May 2017 and will continue until 2019. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and in scientific meetings.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03147937.
PMID: 30804030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Curative treatment of prosthetic joint infection in patients younger than 80 vs. 80 or older.
Joint Bone Spine. 2019 05;86(3):369-372
Authors: Jamakorzyan C, Meyssonnier V, Kerroumi Y, Villain B, Heym B, Lhotellier L, Zeller V, Ziza JM, Marmor S
OBJECTIVE: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of joint replacement surgery. The major pharmacological and surgical treatments required by PJI increase the risk of peri-operative complications in elderly patients. The increase in life expectancy combined with procedural advances make these treatments possible even in the oldest patients. Here, our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of curative PJI treatment in patients < 80 years vs. ≥ 80 years.
METHODS: A prospective single-center design was used to compare the characteristics and outcomes of curative treatment for hip or knee PJI in patients < 80 years and ≥ 80 years admitted in 2004-2014.
RESULTS: Of 765 patients admitted for PJI, 590 were < 80 years and 124 were ≥ 80 years. Medical history and comorbidities were similar in the two groups. The older group had a significantly higher proportion of patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists Scores ≥ 3 and with streptococcal infection (20% vs. 13%, P < 0.05). After complete surgical excision and prolonged antibiotic therapy, the only event whose frequency differed significantly between the two groups was PJI-related death, which was more common in the older patients (6.5% vs. 0.8%, P < 0.05). The 2-year survival rate after one-stage exchange arthroplasty was > 90% in the ≥80 year group.
CONCLUSION: Patients aged 80 years or older are eligible for the same curative pharmacological and surgical PJI treatments used in their younger counterparts. Before surgery, the risk/benefit ratio of the major surgical procedure required to treat PJI must be assessed on a case-by-case basis.
PMID: 30735807 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Comparison of total hip arthroplasty surgical approaches by Statistical Parametric Mapping.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2019 02;62:7-14
Authors: Pincheira PA, De La Maza E, Silvestre R, Guzmán-Venegas R, Becerra M
BACKGROUND: The most common surgical approaches in use for total hip arthroplasty are the lateral and posterior. When comparing these approaches in terms of gait biomechanics, studies usually rely on pre-defined discrete variables related to the events of gait cycle. However, this analysis may miss differences in other parts of the movement pattern that are not explored. We applied Statistical Parametric Mapping to compare hip kinematics between patients who underwent arthroplasty using either a lateral or posterior approach, contrasting these results with discrete variable analysis.
METHODS: Twenty-two participants (11 lateral, 11 posterior; age between 50 and 80 years) underwent gait analysis before, 3 weeks and 12 weeks after hip arthroplasty. One-dimensional (e.g. time-varying) trajectories and zero-dimensional (e.g. peak extension) discrete variables were used to assess differences between groups in each plane of hip movement (sagittal, frontal, and transverse).
FINDINGS: One-dimensional and zero-dimensional analyses found no significant differences between groups. Statistical Parametric Mapping revealed that both groups presented significant changes over time in hip adduction at 11-43% of the gait cycle. Zero-dimensional analysis seems to overstate sagittal plane changes over time since no such changes were found by Statistical Parametric Mapping.
INTERPRETATION: Our results agreed with previous studies suggesting that surgical approach do not affect hip kinematics at the early post-operative stage after arthroplasty. However, Statistical Parametric Mapping revealed changes in frontal plane kinematics over time that were underestimated by the zero-dimensional variables. These findings suggest hip adduction impairment up to 12 weeks after arthroplasty.
PMID: 30639965 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The effect of rheumatoid arthritis on patient-reported outcomes following knee and hip replacement: evidence from routinely collected data.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 06 01;58(6):1016-1024
Authors: Burn E, Edwards CJ, Murray DW, Silman A, Cooper C, Arden NK, Pinedo-Villanueva R, Prieto-Alhambra D
OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes of total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR) for individuals with RA and OA.
METHODS: We performed a cohort study using routinely collected data. Oxford Knee Score, Oxford Hip Score, and EuroQol 5-dimension 3-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaires were collected before and 6 months after surgery. Multivariable regressions were used to estimate the association between diagnosis and post-operative scores after controlling for pre-operative scores and patient characteristics.
RESULTS: Study cohorts included 2070 OA and 142 RA patients for TKR and 2030 OA and 98 RA patients for THR. Following TKR, the median Oxford Knee Score was 37 [interquartile range (IQR) 29-43] for OA and 36 (27-42) for RA while the median EQ-5D-3L was 0.76 (0.69-1.00) and 0.69 (0.52-0.85), respectively. After THR, the Oxford Hip Score was 42 (IQR 36-46) for OA and 39 (30-44) for RA while the EQ-5D-3L was 0.85 (0.69-1.00) and 0.69 (0.52-1.00), respectively. The estimated effect of RA, relative to OA, on post-operative scores was -0.05 (95% CI -1.57, 1.48) for the Oxford Knee Score, -0.09 (-0.13, -0.06) for the EQ-5D-3L following TKR, -1.35 (-2.93, -0.22) for the Oxford Hip Score, and -0.08 (-0.12, -0.03) for the EQ-5D-3L following THR.
CONCLUSION: TKR and THR led to substantial improvements in joint-specific scores and overall quality of life. While diagnosis had no clinically meaningful effect on joint-specific outcomes, improvements in general quality of life were somewhat less for those with RA, which is likely due to the systemic and multijoint nature of rheumatoid disease.
PMID: 30608608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effects of teriparatide on hip and upper limb fractures in patients with osteoporosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Bone. 2019 03;120:1-8
Authors: Díez-Pérez A, Marin F, Eriksen EF, Kendler DL, Krege JH, Delgado-Rodríguez M
In randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with teriparatide, the number of patients with incident hip fractures was small and insufficiently powered to show statistically significant differences between groups. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of teriparatide in the reduction of hip and upper limb fractures in women and men with osteoporosis. A comprehensive search of databases until 22 November 2017 was conducted for RCTs of at least 6-month duration that reported non-spine fractures (hip, humerus, forearm, wrist), either as an efficacy or safety endpoint. Only RCTs that included patients with the approved treatment indications and dose for use of teriparatide were included; trials with off-label use of teriparatide were excluded. Two independent reviewers performed study selection and data extraction. Statistical procedures included Peto's method and Mantel-Haenszel with empirical correction, as most of the RCTs reported zero events in at least one of the treatment arms. Study results are expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Publication bias and heterogeneity were evaluated with standard statistical tests. Twenty-three RCTs were included, 19 with an active-controlled arm (representing 64.9% of the patients included in the control group) and 11 double-blind, representing data on 8644 subjects, 3893 of them treated with teriparatide. Mean age (SD) was 67.0 (4.5) years, median treatment duration 18 months (range: 6 to 24 months). A total of 34 incident hip, 31 humerus, 31 forearm, and 62 wrist fractures were included. Meta-analysis results showed an OR (95% CI) for hip fractures of 0.44 (0.22-0.87; p = 0.019) in patients treated with teriparatide compared with controls. The effects on the risk of humerus [1.02 (0.50-2.08)], forearm [0.53 (0.26-1.08)] and wrist fractures [1.21 (0.72-2.04)] were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). This meta-analysis provides evidence of efficacy of teriparatide in reducing hip fractures by 56% in patients with osteoporosis.
PMID: 30268814 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sagittal Imbalance Does Not Influence Cup Anteversion in Total Hip Arthroplasty Dislocations.
Clin Spine Surg. 2019 02;32(1):E31-E36
Authors: Haws BE, Khechen B, Patel DV, Louie PK, Iyer S, Cardinal KL, Guntin JA, Singh K
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective Cohort.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Studies have shown that lumbar fusion procedures are associated with an increased risk of total hip arthroplasty (THA) dislocation. Some have speculated that the increased risk of dislocation is caused by mispositioning of the acetabular component because of spinal sagittal imbalance. Unfortunately, the exact relationship between spinal sagittal balance and cup orientation is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of spinal sagittal alignment on cup anteversion in THA dislocation.
METHODS: Patients that suffered a THA dislocation were retrospectively identified. Cross-table lateral hip radiographs were used to measure cup anteversion with normal acetabular anteversion defined as 15±10 degrees. Lateral lumbar spine radiographs were used to measure lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt, and sacral slope. Normal sagittal balance was defined as a PI-LL difference of <10 degrees. The association between sagittal balance and THA characteristics was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient, χ analysis, and independent t tests.
RESULTS: A total of 29 patients had full radiographic imaging. Among these patients, 62.1% dislocated following a primary THA and 37.9% following a revision THA. Abnormal spinal sagittal balance was identified in 20 patients (69.0%). Eight (27.6%) patients had undergone spinal fusion prior to THA. Abnormal cup anteversion was demonstrated in 51.7% of all patients. Presence of a spinal fusion was not associated with cup anteversion, sagittal balance, or time to dislocation. Sagittal balance was not associated with direction of dislocation, time to dislocation, or cup anteversion.
CONCLUSIONS: A majority of patients with a THA dislocation demonstrated abnormal sagittal balance. However, sagittal balance was not associated with acetabular cup anteversion. As such, the relationship between spinal deformity and dislocation rates after THA may not be because of inaccurate cup orientation.
PMID: 30247184 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Biofidelic finite element models for accurately classifying hip fracture in a retrospective clinical study of elderly women from the AGES Reykjavik cohort.
Bone. 2019 03;120:25-37
Authors: Enns-Bray WS, Bahaloo H, Fleps I, Pauchard Y, Taghizadeh E, Sigurdsson S, Aspelund T, Büchler P, Harris T, Gudnason V, Ferguson SJ, Pálsson H, Helgason B
Clinical retrospective studies have only reported limited improvements in hip fracture classification accuracy using finite element (FE) models compared to conventional areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements. A possible explanation is that state-of-the-art quasi-static models do not estimate patient-specific loads. A novel FE modeling technique was developed to improve the biofidelity of simulated impact loading from sideways falling. This included surrogate models of the pelvis, lower extremities, and soft tissue that were morphed based on subject anthropometrics. Hip fracture prediction models based on aBMD and FE measurements were compared in a retrospective study of 254 elderly female subjects from the AGES-Reykjavik study. Subject fragility ratio (FR) was defined as the ratio between the ultimate forces of paired biofidelic models, one with linear elastic and the other with non-linear stress-strain relationships in the proximal femur. The expected end-point value (EEV) was defined as the FR weighted by the probability of one sideways fall over five years, based on self-reported fall frequency at baseline. The change in maximum volumetric strain (ΔMVS) on the surface of the femoral neck was calculated between time of ultimate femur force and 90% post-ultimate force in order to assess the extent of tensile tissue damage present in non-linear models. After age-adjusted logistic regression, the area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC) was highest for ΔMVS (0.72), followed by FR (0.71), aBMD (0.70), and EEV (0.67), however the differences between FEA and aBMD based prediction models were not deemed statistically significant. When subjects with no history of falling were excluded from the analysis, thus artificially assuming that falls were known a priori with no uncertainty, a statistically significant difference in AUC was detected between ΔMVS (0.85), and aBMD (0.74). Multivariable linear regression suggested that the variance in maximum elastic femur force was best explained by femoral head radius, pelvis width, and soft tissue thickness (R2 = 0.79; RMSE = 0.46 kN; p < 0.005). Weighting the hip fracture prediction models based on self-reported fall frequency did not improve the models' sensitivity, however excluding non-fallers lead to significant differences between aBMD and FE based models. These findings suggest that an accurate assessment of fall probability is necessary for accurately identifying individuals predisposed to hip fracture.
PMID: 30240961 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]