Smoking as a Risk Factor for Readmission in Arthroscopic Surgery: A Propensity Matched Analysis.
J Surg Orthop Adv. 2019;28(4):272-276
Authors: Johnson DJ, Castle JP, Hartwell MH, Baker H, Selley RS, Nicolay RW, Tjong VK
The objective of this study was to perform a propensity matched analysis exploring smoking as a risk factor for readmission following hip, knee and shoulder arthroscopy. Patients undergoing knee, shoulder or hip arthroscopy between 2006-2016 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). Patient's smoking was analyzed for its effect on 30-day readmission using multivariate regression adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. A propensity matched analysis control identified 19,732 non-smokers to serve as the control group. The readmission rate for the non-smoking cohort was 0.9% and 1.3% in the smoking group (p = 0.01). In a multivariate analysis adjusting for baseline characteristics and medical comorbidities, smoking status was associated with increased risk readmission (Odds Ratio: 1.37 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.133-1.657] p = 0.0012). This study suggests that smoking increases chances of readmission in all arthroscopic surgery. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(4):272-276, 2019).
PMID: 31886763 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Hip Arthroscopy as Part of a Salvage Procedure for Avascular Necrosis (AVN) in a 7-Year-Old Child.
Am J Case Rep. 2019 Jul 02;20:941-947
Authors: Delniotis I, Leidinger B
BACKGROUND Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) is one of the most serious complications following developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Treatment options focus mainly on improving the biomechanics and kinematics of the affected hip joint. In the past, femoral and pelvic osteotomies were the mainstay of treatment. Over the last years, the use of hip arthroscopy has also grown and allows reconstructive treatments in pediatric hip disorders. CASE REPORT We present a 7-year old patient with AVN of the proximal femoral head after open reduction of her dislocated hip (DDH). The patient presented to our department with limb length discrepancy, limited internal rotation of the right hip and groin pain. We performed a two-stage procedure including a) valgus proximal femur osteotomy combined with Dega acetabuloplasty and b) hip arthroscopy to address the formation of CAM impingement that was the result of excessive femoral head necrosis and our re-orientation procedure. CONCLUSIONS AVN following closed or open reduction for DDH is a potentially devastating complication. Hip arthroscopy can be an extremely useful tool that can be used in addition to the well-known osteotomy procedures to improve joint congruency. Hip arthroscopy in the pediatric population is a new growing field that can be used in managing disorders of the pediatric hip, as the indications will continue to evolve.
PMID: 31263092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Is Hip Arthroscopy Effective in Patients With Combined Excessive Femoral Anteversion and Borderline Dysplasia? A Match-Controlled Study.
Am J Sports Med. 2019 01;47(1):123-130
Authors: Chaharbakhshi EO, Hartigan DE, Perets I, Domb BG
BACKGROUND: Appropriate patient selection is critical when hip arthroscopy is considered in the setting of borderline dysplasia (BD). It is presumable that excessive femoral anteversion (EFA) and BD may contraindicate arthroscopy.
HYPOTHESIS: Patients with combined EFA and BD (EFABD) demonstrate significantly inferior short-term outcomes after arthroscopic labral preservation and capsular closure when compared with a similar control group with normal lateral coverage and femoral anteversion.
STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
METHODS: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed on patients undergoing hip arthroscopy between April 2010 and November 2014. The EFABD group's inclusion criteria were BD (lateral center-edge angle, 18°-25°), labral tear, capsular closure, and femoral version ≥20°, as well as preoperative modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale. Exclusion criteria were workers' compensation, preoperative Tönnis grade >1, microfracture, abductor pathology, or previous ipsilateral hip surgery or conditions. Patients in the EFABD group were matched 1:2 to a similar control group with normal coverage and femoral anteversion by age at surgery ± 6 years, sex, body mass index ± 5, acetabular Outerbridge grade (0, 1 vs 2, 3, 4), and iliopsoas fractional lengthening.
RESULTS: Sixteen EFABD cases were eligible for inclusion, and 100% follow-up was obtained at ≥2 years postoperatively. Twelve EFABD cases were matched to 24 control cases. Mean femoral version was 22.4° in the EFABD group and 10.2° in the control group ( P = .01). Mean lateral center-edge angle was 22.1° in the EFABD group and 31.5° in the control group ( P < .0001). Acetabuloplasty was performed significantly more frequently in the control group ( P = .0006). No other significant differences were found regarding demographics, findings, procedures, or preoperative scores. At latest follow-up, the EFABD group demonstrated significantly lower mean modified Harris Hip Score (76.1 vs 85.9; P = .005), Nonarthritic Hip Score (74.8 vs 88.5; P < .0001), Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (58.3 vs 78.4; P = .02), and patient satisfaction (7.1 vs 8.3; P = .005). There were 4 secondary surgical procedures (33.3%) in the EFABD group and 1 (4.2%) in the control group ( P = .03). One patient in each group required arthroplasty.
CONCLUSION: Patients treated with arthroscopic labral preservation and capsular closure in the setting of EFABD demonstrated significant improvements from presurgery to latest follow-up. However, their results are significantly inferior when compared with a matched-controlled group. Consideration of periacetabular osteotomy or femoral osteotomy may be warranted in the setting of EFABD to achieve optimal benefit.
PMID: 30781991 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Exploring the validation of a Japanese version of the International Hip Outcome Tool 12: Reliability, validity, and responsiveness.
J Orthop Sci. 2019 Jul;24(4):652-657
Authors: Watanabe N, Murakami S, Uchida S, Tateishi S, Ohara H, Yamamoto Y, Kojima T, JAHORN (Japan Arthroscopy of the Hip Outcomes Research Network)
BACKGROUNDS: The International Hip Outcome Tool 12 (iHOT12) was authorized by the Multicenter Arthroscopy of the Hip Outcomes Research Network (MAHORN). iHOT12 is increasingly being adopted in orthopedic studies to report patient outcomes. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the International Hip Outcome Tools "iHOT12J", and to establish its reliability, validity, and responsiveness.
METHODS: To assess test-retest reliability, an identical set of patients reported outcome measures with five qualitative scoring measures including iHOT12; these were filled out by each patient twice. Reliability was explored using Cronbachss alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman plot was used to explore the absolute agreement. To evaluate validity, we examined the relationships between SF36 and iHOT12. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing the smallest detectable change to the minimal important change by applying an anchor-based approach.
RESULTS: Fifty patients (51 joints) were analyzed from March 2016 to October 2017 in Japanese four facility. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.90 and the average value of intraclass coefficient (ICC) was 0.89. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed a solid agreement. Regarding the validity, the Spearman rank correlation coefficients were strong with PF (r = 0.69, p < 0.01), BP (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and PCS (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). The smallest detectable change (3.19) was smaller than the minimum important change (12.40).
CONCLUSIONS: We developed iHOT12J, which seems to show sufficient reliability, validity, and responsiveness. We believe that this patient reported outcome measure is beneficial in studying Japanese patients with femoroacetabular impingement.
PMID: 30638690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Application of a peripheral vein illumination device to reduce saphenous structure injury caused by screw insertion during arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis.
J Orthop Sci. 2019 Jul;24(4):697-701
Authors: Nakasa T, Ikuta Y, Tsuyuguchi Y, Ota Y, Kanemitsu M, Adachi N
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis (AAA) is minimally invasive surgery, whereby percutaneous screw fixation is used through the medial aspect of the distal tibia to fusion the ankle, but it carries the risk of the saphenous vein and nerve injuries. The near-infrared (NIR) vascular imaging system, the VeinViewer® Flex, projects an image of the vein onto the skin, and the visualization of the vein may reduce the vein and nerve injuries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk of the saphenous vein injury by the percutaneous screw insertion during AAA, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the NIR vascular imaging system in the reduction of the saphenous vein injury.
METHODS: Ten patients with the ankle osteoarthritis underwent AAA. Three screw insertion sites (proximal as number 1, anterior distal as number 2, and posterior distal as number 3) were marked and then the vein was depicted on the medial malleolus using the VeinViewer® Flex. The distance between the screw insertion sites and the closest vein was measured. Additionally, the pattern of the vein course on the medial aspect of the distal tibia was investigated in 32 ankles using the VeinViewer® Flex.
RESULTS: The distance of number 1, 2, and 3 from the vein was 2.4 ± 1.4 mm (range from 0 to 5 mm), 6.3 ± 6.6 mm (range from 0 to 20 mm) and 3.5 ± 3.1 mm (range from 0 to 11 mm) respectively. In anterior screw insertion site, 3 of 10 cases showed just on the vein. The veins were observed at the anterior region from the center axis of the tibia more than 75% of ankles which was suspected as the greater saphenous vein with closely running of the saphenous nerve, but also other regions had the crossing vein.
CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous screw fixation during AAA runs the risk of causing the saphenous structure injury. The NIR light imaging system is beneficial in reducing the complications of saphenous structure damage in AAA.
PMID: 30630767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The Rotator Cuff Healing Index: A New Scoring System to Predict Rotator Cuff Healing After Surgical Repair.
Am J Sports Med. 2019 01;47(1):173-180
Authors: Kwon J, Kim SH, Lee YH, Kim TI, Oh JH
BACKGROUND: Scoring systems integrating possible prognostic factors and predicting rotator cuff healing after surgical repair could provide valuable information for clinical practice.
PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic factors predictive of rotator cuff healing after surgical repair and to integrate these factors into a scoring system.
STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.
METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of 603 patients who, at least 12 months after primary rotator cuff repair by a single surgeon, had magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic arthrography to assess repair integrity. The mean age at the time of surgery was 60 years (range, 39-81 years), and 378 patients were women (62.7%). Previous known or suggested factors affecting cuff integrity were analyzed through univariate and multivariate analyses. Factors identified in the multivariate analysis were integrated in a scoring system based on odds ratios (ORs).
RESULTS: The overall healing failure rate was 24%. The following independent risk factors were identified in the multivariate analysis: age >70 years at the time of surgery ( P = .003, OR = 2.71), size of the tear in anteroposterior dimension ( P = .033, OR = 1.94) and retraction ( P = .000, OR = 4.56), fatty infiltration of infraspinatus exceeding grade 2 ( P = .001, OR = 2.91), low bone mineral density (T score ≤ -2.5, P = .04, OR = 1.95), and high level of work activity ( P = .036, OR = 2.18). A 15-point scoring system comprised the following: 4 points for retraction; 3 points for fatty infiltration of infraspinatus; and 2 points for anteroposterior tear size, age, bone mineral density, and work activity, weighted according to multivariate analysis ORs. Patients with ≤4 points had a 6.0% healing failure rate, and those with ≥5 and ≥10 points had 55.2% and 86.2% healing failure rates, respectively.
CONCLUSION: A numerical scoring system including significant clinical and radiological factors was designed to predict healing of the rotator cuff after surgical repair. This scoring system helped predict the adequacy of the repair and assist in deciding the appropriate treatment options.
PMID: 30485753 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Midterm Results of the Bony Bankart Bridge Technique for the Treatment of Bony Bankart Lesions.
Am J Sports Med. 2019 01;47(1):158-164
Authors: Godin JA, Altintas B, Horan MP, Hussain ZB, Pogorzelski J, Fritz EM, Millett PJ
BACKGROUND: The arthroscopic "bony Bankart bridge" (BBB) repair technique was recently shown to successfully restore shoulder stability at short-term follow-up, but longer-term outcomes have not yet been described.
PURPOSE: To report the outcomes at minimum 5-year follow-up after BBB repair for anterior shoulder instability with a bony Bankart lesion.
STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
METHODS: Patients were included if they sustained a bony Bankart lesion, were treated with a BBB technique, and were at least 5 years postoperative. Patients were excluded if they underwent concomitant rotator cuff repair or an open bone fragment reduction. All patients were assessed with the following measures preoperatively and at final evaluation: QuickDASH (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) Physical Component Summary.
RESULTS: From 2008 to 2012, 13 patients who underwent BBB met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 39.6 years (range, 19.1-68.8 years) and a mean follow-up of 6.7 years (range, 5.1-9.0 years). Mean time from most recent injury to surgery was 6.3 months (range, 1 day-36 months). The mean glenoid bone loss was 22.5% (range, 9.1%-38.6%). Mean SF-12 scores demonstrated significant improvement from 45.8 (SD, 9.7) preoperatively to 55.1 (SD, 5.9) at a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. At final follow-up, the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score was 93.1 (range, 68.3-100); the mean QuickDASH score, 6.2 (range, 0-25); and the mean Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, 92.8 (range, 69-99). None of the patients progressed to further shoulder surgery. Three of 13 patients (23%) reported subjective recurrent instability. At final follow-up, 9 of 12 (75%) patients indicated that their sports participation levels were equal to their preinjury levels. Median patient satisfaction at final follow-up was 10 of 10 points (range, 3-10).
CONCLUSION: The arthroscopic BBB technique for patients with anterior bony Bankart lesions can restore shoulder stability, yield durable improvements in clinical outcomes, and provide a high return-to-sport rate at a minimum 5-year follow-up. Three of 13 patients experienced postoperative symptoms of instability but did not undergo further stabilization surgery.
PMID: 30485124 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Changes in Perianchor Cyst Formation Over Time After Rotator Cuff Repair: Influential Factors and Outcomes.
Am J Sports Med. 2019 01;47(1):165-172
Authors: Chung SW, Lee YS, Kim JY, Lee JH, Ki SY, Oh KS, Yoon JP, Kim JY
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge about the changes in perianchor cysts over time and the factors related to perianchor cysts.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in perianchor cyst formation and anchor absorption over time after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with a biocomposite suture anchor and to evaluate the factors affecting perianchor cyst persistence and their relationship with patient outcomes.
STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.
METHODS: Forty consecutive patients (mean age, 61.10 ± 5.79 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair for medium- to large-sized rotator cuff tears using a single type of biocomposite (poly-L-lactic acid/polyglycolic acid-beta tricalcium phosphate) medial-row anchor were prospectively enrolled. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2 different time points (6 and 18 months) was performed, and perianchor cyst formation, anchor absorption, and healing failures were evaluated using postoperative MRI. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and functional outcomes at a minimum of 18 months after surgery were assessed.
RESULTS: Perianchor cysts were observed in 24 patients (60.0% total; grade 1: 35.0%; grade 2: 10.0%; grade 3: 7.5%; grade 4: 7.5%) at 6 months, and 7 patients (18.4% total; grade 1: 7.9%; grade 2: 5.3%; grade 3: 2.6%; grade 4: 2.6%) had a persistent perianchor cyst at 18 months after surgery. No anchors were absorbed at 6 months, but 73.7% of patients revealed complete or near-full absorption at 18 months. Patients with persistent perianchor cysts showed a significantly larger tear size in the anteroposterior dimension ( P = .002) and greater retraction ( P < .001). There were no differences in healing failures and functional outcomes between patients with and without persisting perianchor cysts (all P > .05). No differences were found in perianchor cyst formation and anchor absorption between anchors inserted in the greater tuberosity and the lesser tuberosity (all P > .05).
CONCLUSION: The incidence and severity of perianchor cysts decreased with time, and most biocomposite suture anchors were absorbed at 18 months after surgery. Persisting perianchor cysts correlated with a larger tear size in the anteroposterior dimension and greater retraction.
PMID: 30485118 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Preoperative Symptom Duration Is Associated With Outcomes After Hip Arthroscopy.
Am J Sports Med. 2019 01;47(1):131-137
Authors: Basques BA, Waterman BR, Ukwuani G, Beck EC, Neal WH, Friel NA, Stone AV, Nho SJ
BACKGROUND: Prolonged disease chronicity has been implicated as a cause of suboptimal clinical outcomes after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS), possibly due to disease progression, deconditioning, and the development of compensatory pathomechanics.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of increasing duration of preoperative symptoms on patient-reported outcomes, reoperation, and clinical failure of hip arthroscopy for FAIS.
STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed to identify all patients undergoing primary hip arthroscopy between January 1, 2012, and July 30, 2014, by a single surgeon, with minimum follow-up of 2 years. Patient demographics, comorbid medical conditions, and preoperative outcome scores were compared between patients with preoperative symptoms lasting less than 2 years and those with symptoms lasting 2 years or longer. Multivariate regressions were used to compare Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Score Sport-Specific (HOS-SS), and modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) between the 2 cohorts at 2 years of follow-up.
RESULTS: A total of 624 patients were included, with an average age of 34.0 ± 13.5 years; 235 (37.7%) patients had experienced preoperative symptoms 2 years or longer. Patients with symptoms lasting less than 2 years had statistically significant higher outcome scores than those with symptoms lasting 2 or more years for the HOS-ADL (86.3 ± 16.4 vs 80.3 ± 19.9, respectively), HOS-SS (75.0 ± 25.3 vs 65.1 ± 29.0), and mHHS (79.1 ± 16.6 vs 74.0 ± 18.8), as well as higher satisfaction (82.1 ± 30.7 vs 71.1 ± 31.6) and lower pain scores (2.6 ± 2.3 vs 3.5 ± 2.6). On multivariate analysis, patients with symptoms 2 years or longer had significantly higher visual analog scale-Pain score (β = 0.6, P = .039) and lower HOS-ADL (β = -3.4, P = .033), HOS-SS (β = -6.3, P = .012), and satisfaction (β = -6.7, P = .028) at 2-year follow-up. Patients with longer duration of symptoms also demonstrated less improvement in HOS-SS (β = -10.3, P = .001) at 2 years after surgery. Patients with symptoms for 2 years or longer were significantly less likely to achieve a patient acceptable symptomatic state for HOS-ADL (relative risk [RR] = 0.8, P = .024) and HOS-SS (RR = 0.8, P = .032) at 2 years of follow-up. Patients with symptoms 2 years or longer also demonstrated significantly higher rates of revision arthroscopy (RR = 10.1, P = .046).
CONCLUSION: Patients with untreated, FAIS-related symptoms lasting 2 years or longer before arthroscopic management had significantly worse patient-reported outcomes and higher rates of reoperation at 2 years after surgery when compared with those patients with a shorter duration of preoperative symptoms.
PMID: 30484686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The Responsiveness of Patient- Reported Outcome Tools in Shoulder Surgery Is Dependent on the Underlying Pathological Condition.
Am J Sports Med. 2019 01;47(1):241-247
Authors: Unger RZ, Burnham JM, Gammon L, Malempati CS, Jacobs CA, Makhni EC
BACKGROUND: Given the high number of available patient-reported outcome (PRO) tools for patients undergoing shoulder surgery, comparative information is necessary to determine the most relevant forms to incorporate into clinical practice.
PURPOSE: To determine the utilization and responsiveness of common PRO tools in studies involving patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair or operative management of glenohumeral instability.
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review.
METHODS: A systematic review of rotator cuff and instability studies from multiple databases was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Means and SDs of each PRO tool utilized, study sample sizes, and follow-up durations were collected. The responsiveness of each PRO tool compared with other PRO tools was determined by calculating the effect size and relative efficiency (RE).
RESULTS: After a full-text review of 238 rotator cuff articles and 110 instability articles, 81 studies and 29 studies met the criteria for final inclusion, respectively. In the rotator cuff studies, 25 different PRO tools were utilized. The most commonly utilized PRO tools were the Constant (50 studies), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain (44 studies), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES; 39 studies), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA; 20 studies), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH; 13 studies) scores. The ASES score was found to be more responsive than all scores including the Constant (RE, 1.94), VAS for pain (RE, 1.54), UCLA (RE, 1.46), and DASH (RE, 1.35) scores. In the instability studies, 16 different PRO tools were utilized. The most commonly used PRO tools were the ASES (13 studies), Rowe (10 studies), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI; 8 studies), VAS for pain (7 studies), UCLA (7 studies), and Constant (6 studies) scores. The Rowe score was much more responsive than both the ASES (RE, 22.84) and the Constant (RE, 33.17) scores; however, the ASES score remained more responsive than the Constant (RE, 1.93), VAS for pain (RE, 1.75), and WOSI (RE, 0.97) scores.
CONCLUSION: Despite being frequently used in the research community, the Constant score may be less clinically useful as it was less responsive. Additionally, it is a greater burden on the provider because it requires objective strength and range of motion data to be gathered by the clinician. In contrast, the ASES score was highly responsive after rotator cuff repair and requires only subjective patient input. Furthermore, separate PRO scoring methods appear to be necessary for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair and surgery for instability as the instability-specific Rowe score was much more responsive than the ASES score.
PMID: 29323925 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]