Disparities in cancer screening in people with mental illness across the world versus the general population: prevalence and comparative meta-analysis including 4 717 839 people.
Lancet Psychiatry. 2020 01;7(1):52-63
Authors: Solmi M, Firth J, Miola A, Fornaro M, Frison E, Fusar-Poli P, Dragioti E, Shin JI, Carvalho AF, Stubbs B, Koyanagi A, Kisely S, Correll CU
BACKGROUND: Since people with mental illness are more likely to die from cancer, we assessed whether people with mental illness undergo less cancer screening compared with the general population.
METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed and PsycINFO, without a language restriction, and hand-searched the reference lists of included studies and previous reviews for observational studies from database inception until May 5, 2019. We included all published studies focusing on any type of cancer screening in patients with mental illness; and studies that reported prevalence of cancer screening in patients, or comparative measures between patients and the general population. The primary outcome was odds ratio (OR) of cancer screening in people with mental illness versus the general population. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality and I2 to assess study heterogeneity. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018114781.
FINDINGS: 47 publications provided data from 46 samples including 4 717 839 individuals (501 559 patients with mental illness, and 4 216 280 controls), of whom 69·85% were women, for screening for breast cancer (k=35; 296 699 individuals with mental illness, 1 023 288 in the general population), cervical cancer (k=29; 295 688 with mental illness, 3 540 408 in general population), colorectal cancer (k=12; 153 283 with mental illness, 2 228 966 in general population), lung and gastric cancer (both k=1; 420 with mental illness, none in general population), ovarian cancer (k=1; 37 with mental illness, none in general population), and prostate cancer (k=6; 52 803 with mental illness, 2 038 916 in general population). Median quality of the included studies was high at 7 (IQR 6-8). Screening was significantly less frequent in people with any mental disease compared with the general population for any cancer (k=37; OR 0·76 [95% CI 0·72-0·79]; I2=98·53% with publication bias of Egger's p value=0·025), breast cancer (k=27; 0·65 [0·60-0·71]; I2=97·58% and no publication bias), cervical cancer (k=23; 0·89 [0·84-0·95]; I2=98·47% and no publication bias), and prostate cancer (k=4; 0·78 [0·70-0·86]; I2=79·68% and no publication bias), but not for colorectal cancer (k=8; 1·02 [0·90-1·15]; I2=97·84% and no publication bias).
INTERPRETATION: Despite the increased mortality from cancer in people with mental illness, this population receives less cancer screening compared with that of the general population. Specific approaches should be developed to assist people with mental illness to undergo appropriate cancer screening, especially women with schizophrenia.
PMID: 31787585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Recurrent Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Sella in a Patient with Lynch Syndrome.
World Neurosurg. 2019 Dec;132:219-222
Authors: Voisin MR, Almeida JP, Perez-Ordonez B, Zadeh G
BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome (LS) is a cancer-predisposing condition resulting from germline mutations in deoxyribonucleic acid mismatch repair genes. Patients are at high risk for a multitude of tumors, but no reports of undifferentiated sellar carcinomas have previously been described.
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 56-year-old female with LS due to MSH2 and MSH6 mutations presented with panhypopituitarism and a sellar mass. She was initially diagnosed with pituitary apoplexy and treated nonoperatively. The mass self-resolved. The mass recurred 2 years later, and she underwent endoscopic endonasal biopsy demonstrating an undifferentiated carcinoma of the sella with MSH2 and MSH6 loss. The tumor was negative for pituitary markers and weakly positive for p63. The patient further developed lung and bone metastases and was treated with radiation and chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of an undifferentiated carcinoma of the sella. Our patient harbored a diagnosis of LS and demonstrated local tumor recurrence and aggressive systemic progression. Patients with LS should undergo close follow-up and active surveillance to detect and treat these aggressive lesions in a timely manner.
PMID: 31491579 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Postoperative Ileus: Old and New Observations on Prevention and Treatment in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.
World Neurosurg. 2019 Dec;132:e618-e622
Authors: Wright AK, La Selva D, Nkrumah L, Yanamadala V, Leveque JC, Sethi RK
BACKGROUND: The reported incidence of postoperative ileus (POI) after spine surgery depends on the surgical approach and definition used. It is therefore possible that the overall incidence is substantially higher than previously thought. POI has consequences for both the patient and hospital resources, and can significantly increase health care costs.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients aged 18 years or older who underwent elective complex spine surgery at our tertiary referral institution from 2011 through 2017. Preoperative comorbidities, operating time and approach, estimated blood loss, postoperative complications, and length of stay (LOS) were analyzed for patients meeting the inclusion criteria.
RESULTS: Of 174 patients included in the study, 32 patients (18.4%) developed POI, leading to a significant increase in their median LOS (9 vs. 7 days; P = 0.020). Total estimated blood loss (1649.5 ± 1266.2 vs. 1124.6 ± 936.3 mL; P = 0.009) and total surgical time (501.6 ± 170.5 vs. 388.4 ± 159.8 minutes; P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the POI cohort. The use of nonselective μ-opioid receptor antagonists in 66% of patients with POI did not significantly impact the median LOS (9 vs. 8 days; P = 0.477) compared with patients with POI who did not receive this intervention. The incidence of postoperative adverse events other than ileus was similar between the 2 patient groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite use of early interventions, the median LOS remains significantly longer in patients who develop POI after complex spine surgery. Knowledge of the associated predictive risk factors could potentially assist with the development of rigorous, evidence-based preventative strategies.
PMID: 31442660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]